Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2007 with funding from
OF THE STAGE
.. BY ..
> J ^ . '> , ' » ,
Press of Winn & Hammond
By William E. Horton.
. All rights reservecL
Half-tone cuts by
Van Leyen & Hensler
To My Friend,
Elihu B. Washburne,
In placing this book before the pubUc, the
aim has been to introduce subjects calculated to
impart a greater interest to its pages than if
the contents were confined to dry statistics and
details of the doings of those connected with
The book, as its name implies, is a series of
chapters of "Driftwood of the Stage," not
confining itself to any one branch of the pro-
fession, but giving place to the circus, min-
strelsy, music and the vaudevilles. The greatest
care has been taken to verify all the facts
(many of them here presented for the first
time) in order that it may find favor with the
dramatic collector as well as with those who
are glad to be known as old playgoers.
Much herein contained rests upon an intimate
personal knowledge of the subject, gained
through many years of private friendship and
business association with the profession in
In these reminiscences the endeavor has been
to be correct, and if there is a difference from
others on some points it is because romance has
been sacrificed to historical accuracy. Very
often the wreath of laurel has been placed on
the brows of triumphant leaders and often it
has occurred that they have attracted to them-
selves the credit and glory which justly be-
longed to others. In mentioning the more
prominent people in theatrical life, those who
occupied more humble positions have not been
The Struggle for Fame ii
"The Little Church Around the Corner" 23
A Glance at Vaudeville 34
The Origin of the Elks 46
Importance of Detail 58
Farewells in "Richelieu" 69
Sawdust and Spangles 80
Superstition and Slang 92
Graves of the Players 103
Historic Playhouses 116
Notable Testimonials 129
Church and Stage 142
Songs of Other Days 154
At Rest 166
The Melancholy Dane 178
James Fisk, Jr., in Theatricals 191
The One-Night Stand 202
The Cruel Hiss 214
Story of John Wilkes Booth 226
The Last Appearance 236
Old-Time Minstrels 248
A Bit of History 260
The "Shakedown" 271
At Home and Abroad 283
Patriotism of Stage Folks 296
The Actor and the Actors' Fund 308
Burning of the Brooklyn Theater 320
In Fond Memory 333
In Positions of Honor and Trust 346
Incident and Story 358
Louis James i8
Mrs. Fiske 38
Edward H. Sothern 56
Julia Marlowe 74
James K. Hackett 92
Maude Adams no
Charles Richman 128
Viola Allen 146
Henry B. Harris 166
Charles J. Ross— Mabel Fenton 184
Alice Fischer 202
George W. Wilson 220
Isabel Irving 238
Robert Edeson 256
Ethel Barrymore 274
Ezra Kendall 292
Chrystal Heme 310
George M. Cohan 328
Florence Reed 356
THE STRUGGLE FOR FAME.
Actors advance various reasons as to the im-
pulses which led to their adopting the stage as a
career. Some lay the responsibility at the door
of our old friend Divine Spark. Others, mostly
of the feminine gender, own in rare moments
of confidence to the soft impeachment of vanity.
Ambition to win the plaudits of the public, to
lead the life erroneously conceived to be spent in
the lap of luxury, to satisfy the cravings of
artistic temperament, to verify the prophecies of
the amateur stage, to fulfill the promptings of
heredity, and in many instances to earn a liveli-
hood in a congenial occupation.
To some there would seem to be no life harder
than that of the struggling actor or actress who
wanders through the country clinging to a career
12 Driftwood of the Stage.
fraught with so many trials, discomforts, and
disappointments. Yet there are thousands of
men and women doing it. It is ambition, hope !
It is to win a prize that falls to but a score in a
century, perhaps, and yet everybody expects to
;be.of th^. scori?. Did not quite all of the illus-
tripij^ histrion3 begin as humble and skirmish
^alofig the same lines? Edwin Forrest, Stuart
JR-obson, Frank Mayo, Sol Smith Russell, James
A. Heme, and the others of the few famous
ones, endured the struggle and reaped the re-
w^ard. Why, then, should not all of them believe
in their hopes, and refuse to be dissuaded from
Is there any prize open to the ordinary person
starting out without money or prestige as glit-
tering as that achieved by some of these player
folks? When they first went out in search of
the fame they afterward attained, did any but
themselves believe in their securing it? Doubt-
less many times each was told he could not act,
and many times eagerly scanned the papers in
hopes of an encouraging word, but found he was
ignored or mercilessly criticised. But if by
chance he did find a favorable mention hope
rose, and a waning faith was fortified.
The rush for place and fame in the theater has
Driftwood of the Stage. 1 3
become a madness. In a vast majority of cases
the beginning is practically the end of a stage
career. The top is a very circumscribed place,
and only the favored few can gain or keep a
footing there. The rest must experience misery
and heartbreak in a greater degree than in any
other occupation. The reasons for this are
many, but it is not important to name them.
The fact is enough.
Prominence in the theatrical world can only
be attained by strict attention to business and
hard work. No matter how humble the start,
true merit is sure to be recognized.
What better proof is needed than the fact that
James O'Neill first appeared on the stage at the
National Theater, Cincinnati, where he sup-
ported Edwin Forrest by carrying a spear, and
the first lines he spoke was in the modest ca-
pacity of a wedding guest? It is not so many
years ago that David Warfield was an usher
in a San Francisco theater. By some means
he found the stage door and began a career,
which by close attention to business, at times
mingling with the class of people he was to por-
tray on the stage, studying their habits, char-
acter and dress, as well perfecting himself in
their dialects, placed him among the country's
14 Driftwood of the Stage.
famous character actors. Charles Dickson is
another example of what is necessary to make
a successful actor. Beginning as a clacquer at
Niblo's Garden, New York, in the days when
such spectacles as "The Black Crook," "The
White Fawn," and others of that class held the
boards, and the house supported a corps of
clacquers who were distributed among the audi-
ence to start the applause at the proper time, he
too found his way back of the curtain, and
passed through all the grades from supernumer-
ary to star.
Robert Edeson is the son of George R. Ede-
son, an actor long held in enviable regard by
the public, but with his knowledge gained by
experience of the difficulties attendant on an
actor's life he hoped to dissuade his son from
entering so hazardous a field of endeavor. As
a youth, Mr. Edeson heeded the parental coun-
sel to the extent of confining his talents to the
It was in 1887, while employed in the ca-
pacity of treasurer at the Park Theater, Brook-
lyn, that he unexpectedly found himself trans-
ferred to the stage. Colonel Sinn, the lessee
of the theater, was introducing a new play called
"Fascination," in which Cora Tanner was the
Driftwood of the Stage. 1 5
star. During the rehearsals on the Friday pre-
vious to the production, Colonel Sinn received
word that one of the minor players of the com-
pany had been taken ill. Mr. Edeson offered his
services, was relieved from his office duties, and
played the part on the following Monday night.
Everyone in this country who tries to keep
within speaking distance of the stage and the-
atrical biography knows something of Ezra
Kendall. Indeed, a great many fine and com-
mendatory things could be said of this unique
and sterling comedian. A brief story of his
stage career shows an humble beginning, much
hard work, many trials and disappointments,
and finally success.
His stage experience dates back to school ex-
hibitions in the town hall, when his recitation
of "How Cyrus Laid the Cable," won him some
local newspaper advice to become an actor or
a lawyer. He knew that a lawyer had to be
both, and as he did not have confidence enough
to undertake too much, he chose the stage. After
first learning a trade, he ventured out profes-
sionally, and with the assistance of his trade
managed to get home. This occurred several
times in his first season. Mr. Kendall has
been property man, actor, author, star, and
1 6 Driftwood of the Stage.
has fought every step of the way to the place
he now holds.
Theodore Thomas played the violin at the
Broadway Theater, New York, for nine dol-
lars a week, and Maurice Levi was the pianist
in a vaudeville house at Baltimore, at a salary
that was even smaller. These gentlemen were
not afraid of hard work, and who have been
more successful than they?
Others also began at the bottom of the lad-
der. Louis James began his theatrical career in
January, 1864, in the Macauley stock company
at Louisville, Ky., as a peasant in ''Rachael,
the Reaper." The first part of importance
he was intrusted with was that of Matthew
Leigh, in "Rosedale." Nat C. Goodwin made
his first appearance on the stage at the How-
ard Athenaeum, Boston, in the spring of 1874,
in a play called "Law in New York," in the
part of a newsboy, and giving his imitations
of famous actors. William H. Crane made his
professional debut at Mechanics' Hall, Utica,
N. Y., July 13, 1865, as the Notary in an Eng-
lish version of Donnizetti's "Daughter of the
Regiment." He was then known as "Master
William, the great basso profundo."
John Drew made his first appearance on the
Driftwood of the Stage. 17
stage at the Arch Street Theater, Philadelphia,
then under his mother's management, on March
27,, 1873, as Plumper in the farce ''Cool as a
Cucumber." His second part was Hornblower
in ''The Laughing Hyena." The debut of Ed-
ward H. Sothern took place at Abbey's Park
Theater, New York, in September, 1879, as
the cabman in "Sam," one of his father's plays.
All he had to do was to appear, carry his hand
to his head and say : "Half a crown, your
honor. I think you won't object!"
What might properly be called the profes-
sional debut of William Gillette took place at
the Globe Theater, Boston, September 13, 1875,
when he appeared as Guzman in "Faint Heart
Never Won Fair Lady." Previous to this he
had given public readings, and met with much
success in his imitations. James K. Hackett
made his debut at the Park Theater, Phila-
cielphia, March 28, 1892, as a member of A. M.
Palmer's stock company. His first part was
Francois in "The Broken Seal."
The first part acted by Otis Skinner was that
of Old Plantation, an aged negro, in a rural
play called "Woodleigh," at Wood's Museum,
Philadelphia, October 30, 1877, and the first
part entrusted to Robert Mantell was that of
1 8 Driftzvood of the Stage.
the Sergeant in "Arrah-na-Pogue," at Rock-
dale, England, in 1874.
The distinguished place that Mrs. Fiske has
achieved among contemporary players empha-
sizes as notably as it emphasizes anything, the
intrinsic value of hard w^ork, careful training
and wide experience in the dramatic profession.
Mrs. Fiske was born at New Orleans, her fa-
ther being Thomas W. Davey, a well known
manager in the south and west, but from the
first she was known as Minnie Maddern, after
her mother, who was Lizzie Maddern, an actress
and musician of much ability. Her first ap-
pearance in a play occurred when she was three
years old. She played the Duke of York in
"Richard III." Before attaining her four-
teenth year she had acted many of the leading
juvenile parts, and occasionally old women's
parts, so remarkable was her adaptability. At
the age of sixteen she became a star. The play
in which she made her stellar debut was called
"F'ogg's Ferry," and was presented at the Park
Theater, New York, May 20, 1882.
Julia Marlowe began her stage experience at
the age of twelve as a member of the chorus
of Colonel Miles' Juvenile Pinafore Company.
At that time she was known as Fanny Erough.
« C t I.,
Driftwood of the Stage. 19
She did not remain long in the chorus, soon
being permitted to take the parts of Hebe and
Little Buttercup. At the age of sixteen Miss
Marlowe played her first vShakespearean char-
acter, that of Balthazar, in "Romeo and Juliet."
Her debut as a star took place at New London,
Conn., April 25, 1887. The play selected was
"Ingomar," in which she acted Parthenia. It
was at this time she was first called Julia Mar-
Blanche Walsh made her first public appear-
ance at a benefit performance at the Windsor
Theater, New York, in June, 1887. Miss
Walsh played Desdemona on that occasion. Her
first professional engagement was in a small
part in the melodrama, "Siberia." Maxine El-
liott began her serious dramatic work when
she became a member of E. S. Willard's com-
pany in 1890, during the English actor's first
tour of this country. The first part that was
given her was Felecia Umfraville in "The Mid-
dleman," and she also played Virginia Fleet-
wood in "John Needham's Double." The next
season she remained with Mr. Willard and was
given the part of Beatrice Selwyn in "A Fool's
Paradise," and later that of Lady Gilding in
"The Professor's Love Story."
Driftwood of the Stage.
Ada Rehan made her first appearance on the
stage at Newark, N. J., in 1873. She acted the
part of Clara in Oliver Doud Byron's play
*' Across the Continent." Her first professional
engagement was at the Arch Street Theater,
Philadelphia, then under the management of
Mrs. John Drew. Miss Rehan became a mem-
ber of this company in 1873, and remained with
i^ for three seasons. May Irwin made her first
appearance on the stage at a variety theater in
Buffalo in December, 1875. At that time she
and her sister Flora were known as the Irwin
Sisters. They were little girls in short dresses,
and the first song they sang was ** Sweet Gene-
vieve." Their salary was thirty dollars a week.
Later they did their first sketch, which was
called ''On Board the Mary Jane." Lizzie
Evans made her first bow to the public as a pro-
fessional actress at the Standard Theater, New
York, August 25, 1882. Her first part was
that of Clip in Barney Macauley's ''A Messen-
ger from Jarvis Section."
Mrs. Leslie Carter began her stage career on
November 10, 1890, when she made her debut
at New York in ''The Ugly Duckling." In
October, 1895, she made an astonishing suc-
cess as Marvland Calvert in "The Heart of
Driftwood of the Stage. 21
Maryland," and when *'Zaza" was produced at
Washington, D. C, December 26, 1898, the
dramatic critics of the capital described the
play as a masterpiece, and declared her to be one
of the best actresses of the English stage. Kath-
ryn Kidder made her debut in 1885 as Wanda
in the play "Nordeck," which Frank Mayo had
dramatized from a German novel by Mrs.
Werner called "Vineta." Miss Kidder stayed
in Mr. Mayo's company about a year, and then
acted in "Held by the Enemy" during its run
at the Madison Square Theater, New York. Ida
Conquest made her first appearance as a pro-
fessional actress with Alexander Salvini in 1892,
at a special matinee performance at the Tremont
Temple, Boston, of ''Rohan, the Silent," in
which she played Isobel. Her first stage ap-
pearance, however, began when she was only
eight years old as Little Buttercup in the Bos-
ton Museum juvenile production of 'Tinafore,"
in which she appeared over three hundred times.
Maude Adams made her first appearance on
any stage at the age of nine months, at Salt
Lake City, when she was carried on the stage
in a play called *'The Lost Child." Her first
part was that of Little Schneider in "Our Fritz,"
with J. K. Emmet. Isabel Irving's first en-
22 Driftwood of the Stage.
gagement was with Rosina Vokes, and her de-
but was made at the Standard Theater, New
York, in February, 1887, as Ermyntrude John-
son in Pinero's farce *'The School Mistress."
Later she was given the part of Gwendolin Haw-
kins in the same play. In the fall of 1888, Miss
Irving joined Augustin Daly's Company, with
which she was connected for six years. From
vaudeville entertainer to leading lady for Henry
Irving is a far cry, which possibly only those in
professional life are able to comprehend; yet
Cissy Loftus accomplished it with seeming ease.
Driftwood ol the Stage. 23
" THE LITTLE CHURCH AROUND
On Twenty-ninth Street, near Fifth Avenue,
New York, stands the vine-clad Church of the
Transfiguration, which is perhaps better known
as ''The Little Church Around the Corner." By
some this little ivy-covered place of worship is
called the Actors' Church, as a large number
of professionals are among its regular attend-
ants. This edifice was erected in 1850, and the
Rev. Dr. George H. Houghton, who founded
the parish, was its rector from the beginning
until his death.
The first Transfiguration service was held in
a small room, kindly donated for the purpose,
and a bible, a prayer book, a surplice, a pine
wood lecturn, a few school benches, and a par-
lor organ comprised all the possessions. When
the present site was fixed upon, and a portion
less than one-fourth of the present edifice was
erected, the view was unbroken to Madison
Square below and to Murray Hill above. Lit-
tle by little the church has grown, by pushing
24 Driftzvood of the Stage.
out first in one direction and then in another
as exigencies required or resources permitted,
and so it grew into its present rambling but
picturesque and satisfactory proportions, leav-
ing a fair, open court of beautifully wooded
grounds opening on the street, with its flagged
walks, its fountain, its shade and bird song.
The church is much embowered, so that in
the season of foliage it is hardly visible. Simple
and unpretending without it is all glorious with-
in, with its devout marble altar and correct
liturgic accessories, at the angle where the long
nave and its one transcept meet, its exquisite
baptistry, its valuable and costly pictures, its
richly-varied stained windows, and its unique
memorial window which lights the choir and
organ, its carved and costly pulpit and furnish-
ings, its statuary and stations of the cross. There
is an odor of loving sacrifice everywhere which
makes for the visible as well as spiritual beauty
of holiness. The church is always open from
the rising of the sun until the going down
thereof for public or private devotion. At all
hours there is access to pastoral ministration for
all sorts and conditions in life, and day and
night this ministry of succor and consolation
Driftzvood of the Stage. 25
Out of a single obscure Providence of the
burial of a baptized man grew a relation with
ihe whole dramatic profession, full of confi-
dences and generous sympathies to this day,
which otherwise might have long slumbered
undeveloped. It was, however, only a prac-
tical exemplification of the rector's favorite
motto, which he chose to Christianize from its
pagan setting : *'Homo sum humani nihil a me
alienum puto." (I am a man. I think nothing
human alien to me.)
It was on December 20, 1870, that George
Holland, who had long been a favorite actor in
the companies made famous by Lester Wallack,
Augustin Daly, and others, passed from earth
after almost half a century's professional labor
in this country. Joseph Jefferson, who was a
brother-in-law of the deceased, was requested by
the family to make arrangements for the fun-
eral, and made an application to have the burial
service held at a church where Mr. Holland had
been an attendant, then located on the corner
of Fifth Avenue and Twenty-ninth street, New
In the "Autobiography of Joseph Jefferson'*
occurs a short account of this pathetic yet beau-
tiful episode now famous in the story of the-
26 Driftwood of the Stage.
atrical life. ''Upon the announcement of the
death of George Holland," writes Mr. Jeffer-
son, ''I called at the house of his family and
found them in great grief. The sister of Mr.
Holland informed me that they desired to have
the funeral take place from the church. * *
I at once started in quest of the minister, taking
one of the sons of Mr. Holland with me. * *
Something gave me the impression that I had
best mention that Mr. Holland was an actor.
1 did so in a few words, and concluded by pre-
suming that probably this fact would make
no difference. I saw, however, by the strained
manner of the minister that it would make, at
least to him, a great deal of difference. After
some hesitation he said if Mr. Holland had
been an actor he would be compelled to decline
holding the service in the church. While his
refusal would have shocked under ordinary cir-
cumstances, the fact that it was made in the
presence of the dead man's son was more pain-
ful than I can describe. I turned to look at the
youth and saw that his eyes were filled with
tears. He stood as one dazed with a blow just
Mr. Jefferson then asked the minister whether
he could suggest some church where the cere-
Driftwood of the Stage. 27
mony might be performed. *'He replied that
there was a little church around the corner
where I might get it done. 'Then, if that be
so, God bless the little church around the
corner,' said I. The minister had unwittingly
performed an important christening; and his
baptismal name, 'The Little Church Around the
Corner,' clings to it to this day."
Thither the party w^ent, and the rector. Dr.
Houghton, readily consented to perform the
last rites over the deceased. Since then the
Church of the Transfiguration has been known
as ''The Little Church Around the Corner" in
the affections of the theatrical world, and since
then generations of actors have been married
in and buried from this little church that shrinks
from the noise and glitter of the avenue. Many
strangers come to worship at this embowered
shrine, knowing well the generous welcome that
awaits them. The kindly spirit which has ever
prevailed has done much towards making what
was once a struggling parish one of the strong-
est in the diocese.
Visitors arriving at the metropolis go to see
this little church as tourists go to the Tuileries
at Paris or St. Peter's at Rome. To the New
Yorker a thousand associations makes it dear.
28 Driftwood of the Stage.
The old John Street Church, the birth-place of
Methodism in America, Trinity Church, with
its adjoining graveyard in which are the re-
mains of those who fought and died for our
independence, and historic St. Paul's, where
Washington used to worship, are visited by
many each year. Grace Church, which stands
majestically where Broadway turns at Tenth
Street, and St. Patrick's Cathedral, that grand
marble structure with its twin spires that loom
up on Fifth Avenue, attract a vast number who
also wend their way to ''The Little Church
Around the Corner."
The marble church with the lofty steeple
where they had no room for the actor was torn
down long ago to make room for business
houses, but the little church still stands and will
continue to stand just where it is unless de-
stroyed by fire or the elements, until it shall
crumble away. It is founded on a rock; found-
ed on the new commandment given to man-
kind, "That ye love one another," and nothing
shall prevail against it.
As the older members of the profession pass
away, younger ones take their place, and to them
this house of worship will always be dear. They
revere the names of those whose remains have
Driftwood of the Stage. 29
been brought from foreign countries and dis-
tant cities that the prayers for the dead may here
be said over all that was mortal of them, and
without regard to sect, creed or denomination,
stand ready to show their devotion by their
attendance, their services, and if need be, their
George Holland was born at Lambeth, near
London, England, December 6, 1791, and at
the time of his death was seventy-nine years
old. His first appearance on any stage was at
the Olympic Theater, London, in 1820, as Tom
in "All at Coventry." He made his debut before
an American audience at the Bowery Theater,
New York, in September, 1827, assuming seven
characters in ''The Day After the Fair," and
played his last part at the Fifth Avenue The-
ater, New York, Januaray 12, 1870, as Mr.
Jenkins, in a play called "Surf." He joined Mr.
Daly's company in 1869 and remained a mem-
ber until his death. The last time he appeared
on the stage was at a testimonial tendered him
at this same theater. May 16, 1870. The play
of "Frou Frou" was presented, but he took no
part in the performance. Too much affected to
respond to the kind plaudits of the audience,
he spoke his last lines in public, impromptu and
30 Driftwood of the Stage.
from the heart, ''God bless you all!" At his
death benefit performances were given for his
family at New York, Brooklyn, Boston, Balti-
more, San Francisco, and Vicksburg, Miss.
George Holland, in addition to being a fav-
orite actor, was one of the most lovable of men ;
and not only the theatrical profession, but all
the newspapers of the city took up what they
considered a slight to the dead actor. The press
of the entire country seemed interested, and
''The Little Church Around the Corner" be-
came universally known. On the day of the
funeral the church was filled to its capacity and
the adjacent streets and avenues were crowded
with spectators. Aside from his own promi-
nence in the profession Mr. Holland was con-
nected with other professional families of prom-
inence, all of whom attended the funeral, and
every member of the profession within reach
of New York was present.
The following day the newspapers gave much
space to the ceremonies. One paper gave the
opinions of many of the city's most prominent
people on the subject, and another gave an il-
lustration of the little church. A little later ap-
peared the following poem:
Driftwood of the Stage. 31
"Bring him not here, where our sainted feet
Are treading the path to glory;
Bring him not here, where our Saviour sweet
Repeats for us his story.
Go, take him where such things arc done
(For he sat in the seat of the scorner),
To where they have room, for we have none, —
To the little church round the corner."
So spake the Holy man of God,
Of another man, his brother,
Whose cold remains, ere they sought the sod,
Had only asked that a Christian rite
Might be read above them by one whose light
Was, "Brethren, love one another;"
Had only asked that a prayer be read
Ere his flesh went down to join the dead.
While his spirit looked with suppliant eyes.
Searching for God through the skies.
But' the priest frowned "No." and his brow was bare
Of love in the sight of the mourner.
And they looked for Christ and found kim — where?
In that little church round the corner.
Ah, well, God grant when, with aching feet.
We tread lile's last few paces.
That we may hear some accent sweet.
And, kiss, to the end, fond faces,
God grant that this tired flesh may rest
(Mid many a musing mourner).
While the sermon is preached and the rites are read
In no church where the heart of love is dead,
And the pastor's a pious prig at best,
But in some small nook where God's confessed —
Some little church round the corner.
— A. E. Lancaster.
Some of our best known actors have been
buried from this church, and the funeral serv-
ices of Mrs. Holland, who survived her hus-
Driftzvood of the Stage.
band more than thirty years, were also held at
this place. In addition its dear old rector joined
in wedlock more than one thousand stage folks.
The esteem in which he was held by the pro-
fession can hardly be described. He was an
honorary life member of the Actors' Fund of
America, and took great interest in its good
On November ly, 1897, Dr. Houghton en-
tered into rest. Called from the serene and quiet
duties of the pastoral life in which his heart
delighted, among a people who had called him
to them for nearly fifty years, and from the
widest circle of devoted and admiring friends,
he was borne to the grave. By his death the
actor lost one of his most faithful friends.
He was succeeded by his nephew. Rev.
George C. Houghton, and one of the first
things the new rector said was: "This church
has ever been ready to welcome all. We know
no distinction here. When, years ago, the actor
was not welcomed in certain churches, we were
glad to receive him, and we always shall be."
A western manager, on his first visit to New
York, expressed a desire to see this little church.
A friend offered to accompany him, and the
two attended a Sunday morning service. On
Driftzvood of the Stage. 33
leaving, they saw a well known manager, noted
for his cold and austere manner, coming toward
the church. This gentleman was a strict Ro-
man Catholic, but had often been called upon
to act as pallbearer at this house of worship. The
organ was playing sweetly, and before the open
door he stopped, removed his hat and stood rev-
erently until the last note had died away; then
he passed on.
The name of Rev. Dr. George H. Houghton
lives as a teacher of true religion ; but how many
that read this can even recall the name of the
one that refused to perform the funeral rites
©ver a fellow man because he was an actor?
34 Driftzvood of the Stage.
A GLANCE AT VAUDEVILLE.
Few persons of this generation are aware that
H. J. Sargent was the first man in America to
give the name "vaudeville" to the class of en-
tertainment that it signifies to-day. Mr. Sar-
gent's company had been playing at the Na-
tional Theater, Cincinnati, and as the theater
was to be given up to the French tragedian,
Charles Fechter, for an engagement of four
nights, the company was taken to Weisiger's
Hall, Louisville, Ky., to fill the time.
On the evening of February 23, 187 1, the
bills at that house announced the appearance of
"Sargent's Great Vaudeville Company, from the
National Theater, Cincinnati." The company
consisted of the Kiralfy Troupe, the Rigl Sis-
ters, Gus Williams, Charles A. Vivian, Will
Carleton, Jennie Benson, Kynock and Smith,
Morrisey and Emerson, Oscar Willis, Prince
Sadi d'Jalma and J. W. Ward.
The supplanting of the word "variety" with
"vaudeville," and inviting to the theater the
more fastidious and refined elements of the
Driftwood of the Stage. 35
community did more to build the prosperity of
miscellaneous amusement and give it prestige
of respectability than did anything else. Va-
riety shows were originally confined to places
where the patrons were all men who would not
attend unless they could drink or smoke.
More and more the people are looking for
the humorous side of the situation. This is why
burlesque and vaudeville features have become
so popular. The people have enough of tragedy
in real life. They want a laugh, or at least
a smile. The vaudeville house is looked upon
by most people as the house of comedy. They
know a place where their troubles cease both-
ering them. They learn to crave for that method
of forget fulness and yearn for the entertain-
ment. The vaudeville house has proved a boon
to the community, and the appreciation is mark-
ed by the packed houses it attracts.
Vaudeville in Europe is nothing like what
it is over here. Every country has its own par-
ticular style of theatrical amusement. They
demand high-class vaudeville over there, and
in the German cities, Leipsig, Dresden, and other
places, new houses are going up all the time.
The salaries are not so high but the performers
do not have to work so hard. Engagements
36 Driftzvood of the Stage.
last a month at least, and in many cases two
months, and there are no matinee performances,
not even on Sunday afternoon. In Europe per-
formers seldom make more than eight to ten
jumps in any year.
In Germany, and in fact all over Europe, the
vaudeville houses are built on a different plan
than in America. Underneath the theater in
that country, they have a huge saloon or gar-
den with a cafe and billiard room adjoining.
If one does not fancy the show very much, he
can go down stairs and enjoy his game or re^
In Austrian cities, Vienna and Buda Pesth,
the vaudeville idea is still different, the re-
freshment and entertainment features being di-
rectly combined. There, the floor of the the-
ater does not slant from the rear to the or-
chestra, but is perfectly flat. Instead of the chair
seats, as we have here, the Austrians sit around
tables. About six o'clock supper is served, and
the people go in and occupy the tables, and eat
and drink. The German and Austrian could
not be cramped up in a chair. He must have
room to stretch himself, and he must have a
Driftzvood of the Stage. 37
A theater built on the American plan could
not exist there. Neither could an American
vaudeville house live in England. They have
their own style of music hall there, and they
are wedded unalterably to that fashion. Vaude-
ville in France does not amount to much, the
French, except in Paris, depending mostly on
their cafe concerts, with perhaps twenty sing-
ers on the bill, and one or two vaudeville acts.
What makes the vaudeville entertainment so
popular is its cleanliness. The old-time variety
theater with its uninviting surroundings is no
more, and in place of the dismal-looking houses
where this style of performance was given a few
years ago, the finest theaters in the country are
now devoted exclusively to vaudeville. Both
manager and performer should be given credit
for the change. The manager leaves nothing
undone that will make his theater attractive, and
for the care and comfort of his patrons. The
employe is well looked after, is handsomely uni-
formed and well paid. The dressing and wait-
ing rooms for the actors have every conven-
ience, and they have sense enough to realize it.
The acts are properly staged and can be shown
to good advantage. The class distinction that
once existed between the legitimate and the
38 Driftzvood of the Stage.
vaudeville actor is a thing of the past. They do
not now refer to each other as "bum legits," or
''low variety," but work harmoniously in the
Ladies and children are especially looked after,
and should any one attempt to annoy them in
any way he would have his money returned
and forced to quit the place in short order. All
acts must be suitable for refined audiences and
offensive words are not allowed to be used at
any time or by any person. Among the words
prohibited are "damn," "devil," "slob" and
others of that class, and reference to socks, feet,
breath and poker games is prohibited. Even
the much maligned mother-in-law can attend
without fear of being ridiculed.
Often it is wonderful where all the acts come
from. The manager is always on the lookout
for features that will please the patrons as well
as fill the house. Military bands are taken from
the concert stage, famous singers are taken from
grand opera, and stars from the legitimate offer
Some managers devote a certain morning
each week to trying out amateur and unknown
specialties. The theater is empty save those con-
nected with the house, and perhaps a few
Driftwood of the Stage. 39
vaudeville agents on the lookout for a diamond
in the rough. It is the most crucial test a sketch
or a performer can be put to. Jokes are ghastly
when given to empty seats, except the few oc-
cupied by the stony-hearted committee. Songs
sound hollow, dancers look ordinary, lines are
hopelessly tame and the spirit of appreciation
which makes or mars a thing is absolutely lack-
Every morning there are more persons to be
heard than time permits. About nine out of
ten are not worth hearing. Tears flow copi-
ously. Four out of five women break down and
think their hearts are broken. How confident
they are that if they could only have had an
audience and lights, and the feeling that goes
with amusement honors — how different it
would have been. They straggle home down-
hearted, discouraged, and despondent. What
is the use ? They look wistfully at the bill-
boards they are passing by and account for some
other one's greatness as so much pull or so much
luck. They forget that they have just had an
opportunity, and if merit there had been any
they would have been joyfully accepted. Man-
agers are not spending wearisome hours watch-
ing unknown amateurs for the mere pleasure of
40 Driftzvood of the Sta^e.
the thing. The hope of running on something
good, a novelty, a genius like an angel un-
awares, is the only thing that keeps them out
front four or five hours or permitting a lot of
would-be artists to use their time and attention.
The restrictions though rigid are few, and sel-
dom of the sort that cannot be obliterated with-
out detriment to the sketch.
The great trouble confronting vaudeville man-
agers is getting the successful artists to produce
new things. Once the clever people make a hit
they immediately lie back and rest jauntily upon
their laurels, imbued with the impression that
the next two or three seasons are easy. Half,
more than half, the people seen on trying-out
mornings have no right to be going through
the stage door. There never was a man or wo-
man yet who did not think in their secret soul
that they could act. A great many of these men
and women try it, and when awful and abso-
lute failure is their reward they wring their
hands and screech to high heaven with disap-
pointment, and blame managers.
But these managers are the most lenient of
men. They realize fully the awkwardness of
the position, the inevitable stage fright that is
afflicting the performers before them. They
Driftwood of the Stage. 41
know that every new and untried sketch is raw
material and bound to begin badly, or begin well
and end badly. They wait patiently for action
to develop, for lines to grow brighter, for per-
formers to gain self-possession. Every sketch,
every turn is given a fair trial ; but when in the
face of all conditions, the act is hopeless from
all points of view, it is only fair to call it off and
give possibility a show. In the course of time
good acts, clever workers, agreeable personals,
novelties and interesting turns are weeded out
and given to the public.
Great care is used in booking the acts and it
is very seldom a mistake is made. The most
notable case on record is of an ex-prize fighter
who was engaged at one of the houses to present
a monologue. He was a coarse creature with
an abominable dialect, and had other habits of
speech and conduct that unfitted him for polite
society, but it was thought he would prove a
great drawing card. His appearance at the
third performance was one of the most lament-
able happenings in vaudeville history, and it
was necessary to ring down the curtain on him
twice. He came before the audience in a thor-
oughly unpresentable condition, being so far un-
der the influence of liquor that he had no idea
42 Driftwood of the Stage.
of what he was talking, and made several dis-
At first many of the audience thought that
his rambling and impertinent talk was in his
monologue, but as he went on he grew more
rank in tone until one or two very serious
breaks brought his hearers to a realization that
the man was not acting but was intoxicated.
Next he took some bills from his pocket and of-
fered them to the orchestra leader. There were
gasps and laughs and expressions of dissatis-
faction from the audience. Then he lost all
track and began babbling inanely bits of stories,
reminiscences of his career and boasts about his
prowess. It was silly but there was nothing
profane in what he said.
He realized himself that he was drunk and
attempted to tell the audience about it, but the
management rang down the curtain and cut
him off. In a few seconds he rushed out
through the first entrance before the curtain and
tried to speak, but he was hissed almost off his
feet. He then tried to recite a sentimental
poem, but the management saw the utter hope-
lessness of the case and the ridicule to which he
was exposing the house, and the curtain was
rung down again. The manager came before
Driftwood of the Stage. 43
the audience and announced the cancellation,
saying that the house could not afford to allow
a performer to insult its audiences. The party
had been engaged in perfect good faith, as he
had made such a tremendous success in the east
where he had been playing for the previous few
weeks. Before making a contract with him rig-
orous inquiries had been made into the charac-
ter of the act, and he had been given every
assurance from the other managers that it was
all right. On this recommendation he made
the contract, and he regretted very much the
fact that the person had ever been permitted
to appear at the house. The audience applauded
the action heartily, and everyone seemed satis-
There is more harmony among vaudeville per-
formers than in any other branch of the pro-
fession. Of course, no one wants to open or
close the show, and once in a while a protest is
made as to whom they follow on the program.
Conceited persons do not remain so long, as
something is sure to occur that will restore them
to their normal condition. A performer taking
part in a private entertainment at the conclusion
of his act was greeted with loud and continued
applause. Returning to the stage he bowed
44 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
and bowed to the audience, but the cheers and
applause did not stop. Finally, the one in charge
called out to him : "Come off. That is not for
you. The governor of the state has just come
Strikes are unknown among actors, not even
the sudden epidemic of sickness that broke out
under the auspices of the White Rats of Amer-
ica, in 1901, and which affected a number of
theaters in the east, could hardly be called a
strike. A company playing at the Olympic The-
ater, Chicago, a number of years ago, packed up
their belongings and refused to appear on the
same bill with two colored performers, and the
manager was compelled to accede to their de-
mands or close the house.
A woman who had no business on the vaude-
ville stage, or any other stage for that matter,
came near closing the Grand Opera House,
Philadelphia, for a time, when it was being
conducted as a vaudeville house. The profes-
sion was not adopted by her as a means of live-
lihood as she was immensely wealthy in her own
right, and by marriage connected with the
wealthiest families in the Keystone State. It
was not to acquire fame, as she moved in the
most exclusive society and her husband held a
Driftwood of the Stage. 45
position of rank in the service of his country.
It might have been to gain notoriety.
Her name was found heading the bills that
contained the names of actors who had been
recognized favorites for years, and she picked
her place on the program. She was treated with
the utmost courtesy by all. During rehearsal
on the day she was to make her first appear-
ance at her home city, she made complaint as to
her dressing room, claiming it was too near the
other members of the company, whom she did
not know and with whom her position in society
would not allow her to associate. A fine place
for a remark like that. Other uncomplimentary
things that had been said of the profession in
general were recalled, and a fight was on. A
committee informed the manager there would
be no performance if the offending party was
to appear, and things looked as if the house
would have to be closed. A truce was arranged
by an apology being made, but the week's en-
gagement was far from pleasant to all. Among
those who protested longest and loudest against
appearing on the same bill with such a person
was an exhibitor of trained dogs and monkeys.
46 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
ORIGIN OF THE ELKS.
It is to the stage and the people of the stage
that the Benevolent and Protective Order of
Elks owes its existence. That band of pioneers
who were its founders had no thought that the
order would ever reach such gigantic propor-
tions, and although it has long since outgrown
the limitations that made members of the the-
atrical profession alone eligible for membership,
the order has ever been in sympathetic touch
and fraternal union with the people of the
The straight-laced excise laws which were
passed by the legislature of the state of New
York in the year 1866 led incidentally to the
foundation of the Elks. Actors, as a rule, are a
jovial, free-hearted set, and with a rigid en-
forcement of the excise laws they were deprived
of one of their few sources of amusement. Sun-
day was the only day in the week which the actor
at that time could call his own, and his mind
demanded relaxation from the cares lof the
week, so he generally sought the companion-
Driftwood of the Stage. 47
ship of kindred spirits in the profession to dis-
cuss the latest gossip of the theater, the advent
of some new star, the prospects of the coming
season, and these discussions, of course, partook
of the fashion and custom of the world of un-
conventionality. The new excise law came like
a bombshell on these assemblies, and not only
scattered the participants, but put an end to all
the old places of meeting.
For a while the actors were at a loss what to
do. Their meetings had become so regular, al-
though they had no organization, and they
had become so cemented together in the bonds
of goodfellowship that the deprivation made
them feel instinctively the need of organiza-
tion. How to accomplish that result, however,
did not present itself to any of their minds for
quite a while afterward, when it was finally re-
solved to form a society patterned somewhat
after the Buffaloes, a famous English convivial
organization composed entirely of actors.
The new society took the somewhat ambigu-
ous name of the Jolly Corks. Whether the
title was adopted because of the lightness of
spirit, which was a prime characteristic of the
little party, or on account of the connection of
corks with the theatrical profession, has never
48 Driftwood of the Stage.
been fully explained. At first only a few were
banded together. Each week a purse was raised
by small contributions from the members which
was used to pay for the meeting room and buy
refreshments and a lunch for the company.
It w^as at the boarding house of Mrs. Gies-
man, at 188 Elm Street, New York, that the
first meetings of the Tolly Corks were held. Mrs.
Giesman's house was at that time a favorite re-
sort with a number of choice spirits, among
whom were several musicians and others con-
nected with the theatrical profession. These,
with a few congenial associates, were in the
habit of assembling in the parlor on Sunday af-
ternoons for the purpose of spending the time
in social intercourse. It was at one of these
meetings in the fall of 1867 that the association
was given a permanent form, and the first offi-
cers elected. Charles A. Vivian was the first
Imperial Cork, as the presiding officer was
designated. The original organization consist-
ed of fifteen members. All were not members
of the theatrical profession, and their names
and vocations are hereby appended. Charles
A. Vivian, T. Grattan Riggs, William Carleton,
George F. McDonald, William Sheppard,
Henry Vandemark and William Lloyd Bowron
Driftwood of the Stage. 49
were connected with the amusement profession ;
Richard Steirly was a music teacher; John T.
Kent, E. M. Piatt, Harry Bosworth and John
H. Blume were connected with mercantile
houses; Frank Langhorn and M. G. Ashe were
photographers, and John G. Wilton was a wood
The organization prospered from the start,
it being semi-secret and quite exclusive. A re-
solution was passed whereby none but members
of the dramatic, minstrel and equestrian pro-
tessions were admitted, and of those classes
only men who were congenial to the founders
were eligible to membership. In the meantime
an initiation service had been provided for ad-
mission of candidates to membership.
After the Jolly Corks had been in existence
lor some time better things for the organization
were thought of by the members, and at a
meeting in December, 1867, the question arose
as to the feasibility of creating an order for
charitable as well as social purposes. The idea
met with general favor, and it was decided to
form a society with a broader scope and a
nobler purpose. A committee of seven was
appointed with full power to provide a consti-
tution, ritual, by-laws, and a name for the new
50 Driftzvood of the Stage.
order. This committee consisted of George W.
Thompson, William Lloyd Bowron, George
F. McDonald, William Sheppard, T. Grattan
Riggs, James Glenn, and Henry Vandemark,
who, after several weeks' labor reported a con-
stitution, ritual and by-laws, and recommended
the name of the Benevolent and Protective
Order of Elks.
The committee who were appointed to find a
name to substitute for Jolly Corks were thor-
oughly Americans, and naturally wanted a
distinctive American name. Buffaloes had
been suggested, but although the animal was a
native of the country the knowledge that an
English order had usurped the name caused
the suggestion to be discarded. The minds of
the committee seemed to run to animals. Bears
were thought of, but as those animals had few
inviting traits, being coarse, brutal and morose,
the thought of adoption was cast aside; beavers
industrious enough, but too destructive; foxes
too cunning and crafty; and so on through the
list. In choosing the elk, the founders were
inspired with poesy. In all natural history
there is no animal more beautiful. Majestic of
mien, swift of foot, timid and shy, an eye as
soft as childhood's, the elk is, nevertheless, re-
Driftwood of the Stage. 51
solute in the defense of its rights. The prey
of many, it brings no grief to any child of the
forest. It is neither rapacious nor revengeful.
Its home is sylvan, and its ways are ways of
The constitution and by-laws were adopted
February 16, 1868, and a temporary organiza-
tion effected. Under the title of Benevolent
and Protective Order of Elks, Charles A.
Vivian presided at one session of the lodge, in
which he conferred the first degree on a num-
ber of candidates, but not until three months
later, May 17, 1868, was the new ritual pre-
sented to the lodge and adopted. At the meet-
ing of May 24, one week later, the committee
invested the brethren of the Jolly Corks with
the grips, signs, pass-words and second degree
of the Elks, and on the same evening the first
officers of the new order were elected.
The first initiation fee was placed at two
dollars, but as the lodge was rapidly increasing
ill membership, and it was found necessary to
procure larger quarters, the initiation fee was
raised to five dollars. In December, 1868, the
entire membership of the Benevolent and Pro-
tective Order of Elks consisted of fifty-five per-
52 Driftwood of the Stage.
sons, all of whom, with a few exceptions, were
members of the theatrical profession.
The following gentlemen were elected as the
first officers of the new order: George W.
Thompson, Right Honorable Primo and
Exalted Ruler; James Glenn, First Assistant
Right Honorable Primo and Esteemed Leading
Knight; William Lloyd Bowron, Second As-
sistant Right Honorable Primo and Esteemed
Loyal Knight; George F. McDonald, Third
Assistant Right Honorable Primo and Es-
teemed Lecturing Knight; William Sheppard,
Secretary; Henry Vandemark, Treasurer; Al-
bert Hall, Tiler.
The other members of the order at the time
were as follows: Thomas G. Gaynor, William
H. Smith, Hugh Dougherty, James Carter,
John Mulligan, Harry Stanwood, William Car-
ter, Archie Hughes, M. G. Ashe, Joseph
Leonard, Hugh O'Neill, Claude Goldie, John
H. Blume, John F. Oberist, Henry Rapp,
William Hallam Brown, James W. Lingard,
William G. Griffin, Louis Nevers, George
Rockafellar, George J. Green, Harry Bosworth,
John T. Kent, John G. Wilton, Edward Eddy,
E. M. Piatt, Charles F. Shattuck, John W.
Vanness, Robert Spears, T. Grattan Riggs,
Driftwood of the Stage. 53
Antonio Pastor, John Shannon, Fernando Pas-
tor, Henry P. O'Neill, William Carleton, John
Queen, Thomas Donnelly, Joseph Norcross,
James W. Brady, Frederick Hoffman, John F.
Poole, Cool White, George Guy, John H.
Brewer, Frank Langhorn, Ernest Neyer, Rich-
ard Steirly, George W. Green and Robert S.
The first entertainment under the auspices
of the new order was a ball given at Ferrero's
Assembly Rooms, Broadway and Twenty-
eighth Street, New York, April 16, 1868. The
first benefit for the purpose of augmenting the
funds of the lodge, was advertised as the "First
Annual Benefit of the Performers' Benevolent
and Protective Order of Elks," and took place
at the Academy of Music, New York, on the
afternoon of June 8, 1868. The first Ladies'
Social Session in Elkdom was held December
25, 1870. Brother Tony Pastor was chosen to
preside. The first Memorial Services, at that
time called a Lodge of Sorrow, was held at
Masonic Hall, New York, on the afternoon of
March 20, 1870. The hall was appropriately
draped, and an excellent program was rendered,
of which music was a prominent feature. From
this time the exercises commemorative of de-
54 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
parted brothers were brought to a systematic
basis, and were held annually on an elaborate
In less than a year continued additions to
their ranks rendered another change necessary,
and the lodge was again compelled to seek
larger quarters. The increase in the member-
ship was due to the prominence given the order
by its elaborate theatrical benefits, and also from
the fact that no restriction as to profession was
placed on membership under the constitution.
Little did that small coterie dream that they
were sowing the seeds that would bring forth
such fruit. They builded better than they knew\
In love of humanity they planted the germ of
a great fraternity, an organization that reaches
over the whole union, embracing many lodges
in every state, and has dispensed millions of
dollars for the aid of mankind ; an order which
gathers in gentle charity to dispense it, as the
silent rain — charity, but not alms. How many
thousands of these unknown records of mercy
are inscribed in wounded hearts to-day?
They taught charity without ostentation, the
one great secret of the order being to dispense
charity without publicity, and to keep sacred
the name of a brother receiving aid or relief
Driftivood of the Stage. 55
from the order. They taught us to write the
faults of our brothers on the sand, and to en-
grave their virtues on the tablets of love and
memory. They taught that not only for the
living must we manifest regard and fraternal
care, but for those who have gone before, who
have passed from earth and have solved the
mysteries of life and death, and each year
solemn services are held to do honor to their
There seems to be a desire in every human
heart not to be forgotten. We all desire to
live again, and that our names and memory
shall not perish from the earth. It is a thought
dear to the heart of every man, that after being
called to his last account, that those friends who
survive us will annually meet and that some
one of our friends will each year, in loving
phrases, recall our virtues, so that others will
keep forever green our memory. Those who
founded this noble order have nearly all passed
through the gate which closes on earth's twi-
light and opens on Heaven's dawn. They were
the men w^ho exemplified the grandest principles
the world ever knew — Charity, Justice, Broth-
erly Love and Fidelity,
During the first year of its organization not
56 Driftwood of the Stage.
a death occurred in the lodge, but in 1869 one
of its members passed away, and Brother Albert
Hall has the distinction of being the first mem-
ber of the Benevolent and Protective Order of
Elks to be called by the Exalted Ruler above.
Brother James W. Lingard, a prominent and
popular actor-manager, died in July, 1870, and
his funeral was the first public demonstration
in which the Elks took part. The funeral of
Brother Lingard took place on a Sunday after-
noon, and the lodge had charge of the service.
The members were out in force, and arrayed
uniformly in dark clothing, silk hats, white
aprons and gloves, with a sprig of amaranth
on the lapel of their coats made a striking ap-
pearance. They had no music; they needed
none. The Elks had often been heard of but
never seen, and no finer-looking body of men
ever appeared on the streets of that great city.
The first set of fours was composed of Brothers
Nelse Seymour, John Mulligan, George F. Mc-
Donald and T. Grattan Riggs, all big fellows,
and now numbered with the absent. Following
them were the familiar faces of all the pro-
m.inent managers and actors of that day.
Brother George W. Thompson was the Exalted
Ruler of the lodg-e at that time and conducted
Edward H. Sothern.
Driftwood of the Stage. 57
the services. Of the participants on that
occasion very few are now alive, but the ones
that are can still be found in the ranks.
In the Cemetery of the Evergreens at Brook-
lyn, N. Y., is the Elks' Rest of New York
Lodge, No. I. This rest was dedicated in
1879, and was the first of the many now in the
country, and about the handsome monument
are clustered the carefully kept graves of its
former members. The first interments in this
plot were Brothers Henry Mason, John Mulli-
gan, John C. Campbell, James Clark and Joseph
Knight, whose remains were brought from
another cemetery and laid to rest at one and
the same time beneath the branching antlers of
the Elk, the emblem of the order they loved so
58 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
IMPORTANCE OF DETAIL.
Dramatic authors at times pay too little at-
tention to detail, and very often scenes and
situations are presented that have a tendency
tc reflect on the intelligence of the audience.
In farce comedy the ridiculous is looked for,
and when a tramp is wheeled on a hand truck
into a drawing room filled with guests in even-
ing dress, it calls for roars of laughter; but in
the serious drama a certain amount of consist-
ency is looked for. The stage manager will
often become an accessory, and allow ''General
Putnam, the Iron Son of '76," to stand off a
body of British soldiers with a nickel-plated,
self-acting revolver, which was not invented
until many years after. This worthy has also
been known to present as the house of the
Borgias a modern exterior, the perspective
showing a lamp post, fire hydrant, a well paved
street and telegraph wires.
What excuse can be offered by a manage-
ment that will allow a high desk to be placed on
a platform in Herald Square, and turn that busy
Driftwood of the Stage. 59
thoroughfare into a slave market? To see
Simon Legree examine the teeth and feel the
muscles of a lot of shackled negroes, crack his
whip at the meddlesome Marks, and then lean
up against one of the pillars of the elevated rail-
way while he outbids everybody in the neigh-
borhood, is asking a little too much of the
audience under the claim of stage license.
A well known actor wrote a military play
in which he appeared as a gruff old colonel.
During the action of the play he referred to
and introduced a young officer in the cast as
lieutenant. He did not seem to know that in
army circles an officer of this rank is referred to
as mister by his superiors, nor did he notice
that the lieutenant's sleeves were adorned with
a sergeant's chevrons. Another one of these
military playlets was spoiled by a lack of at-
tention to detail. The play was of the time of
the Mexican war. The actor cast for the part
of a major of artillery wasely sought the advice
of an experienced military tailor, who from the
charts of that period provided a uniform cor-
rect in every particular, worn by officers of that
rank and branch of the regular service at the
time. Not so with the one entrusted with the
juvenile part. While an officer of inferior rank
6o Driftwood of the Stage.
in the same regiment with the major he had
ideas of his own as to miHtary dress, and ar-
rayed himself in a uniform of varied colors, and
the epaulettes, sashes and gaiter tops added by
him, instead of looking like an officer in the
regular army, had a tendency to make him look
more like a drum major in a country band.
One of our most successful playwrights
introduced a sheriff as the leading character in
one of his plays. The sheriff wishes to resign
and the resignation is sent to the city council
for action. When did the sheriff become a city
officer, and why was that resignation not sent
to the governor of the state, who alone had
For many years we were visited by a melo-
drama which exploited the daring of a young
fireman. The star wore the regulation uniform
of a paid fireman. In the conflagration scene
he is first on the ground, followed by a body
of men dragging an old-time hose-cart, and
attired in the red shirt and fire hat of volunteer
days. In the last act he informs his sweetheart
that he has been promoted for bravery at the
aforesaid fire, and that he now wears the uni-
form of a fire commissioner. As a rule, fire
commissioners are selected from a city's solid
Driftwood of the Stage. 6i
business men, and some would bow themselves
gracefully out if a uniform went with the
In the machine-made melodrama will be
found the most improbable in plays. An Eng-
lish member of the guild gives the following
example of his ingenuity : Among the frequent
murders in his play is one by the tickling tor-
ture, but the villain is reserved for a more
picturesque fate than that. In the course of
the play he has fatally stabbed his wife. In the
last act his pursuers track him into a secret
Egyptian chamber in his house. Among them
is a detective, who, at various times, disguises
himself as a priest, a visitor to a massage estab-
lishment, and a maiden aunt. The Egyptian
chamber is dark and a life-sized marble statue
frightens the hiding murderer. When he dis-
covers what it is he takes a hammer to demolish
it, but the figure assumes the identity of his
murdered wife, and menacingly stalks toward
him. He cowers in a corner, but the statue that
has come to life pursues him and thrusts a
dagger into his heart. The pursuers break in
only to find a corpse in the presence of a marble
Another of these authors tells an impossible
62 Driftwood of the Sta^e,
sort of a story in an impossible sort of a
manner. Imagine for a moment a mother who
has just quarreled with her father, and who
threatens to take her own life if her fond parent
tries to carry out his threat of forcing his child
to marry his adopted son, who, unknown to
him, has been robbing the firm of which the
two men are members. The younger man is
discovered altering the books of the firm, and
when questioned by the senior partner the youth
stabs his benefactor, who immediately falls
dead. The son leaves the place and the body
is discovered by the granddaughter of the old
man, who falls over his body and asks him who
did it, and he replies, "Your mother, child,
your mother." And thus it is arranged that
the mother is arrested and held for trial on the
charge of murder. The strongest evidence
against her is the fact of her having quarreled
with her father just prior to his death, and that
there was some blood on her fingers and hand-
kerchief when the body was discovered. The
only missing link was her dagger, which the
district attorney, who loved the persecuted
woman, had taken from her and concealed.
In the last act of the improbable story the
courtroom is shown, and after the usual tedious
Driftwood of the Stage. 63
dialogue of such scenes the mother is about to
be convicted when her daughter enters and pre-
sents a note that had been given her by a horse
thief on his way to the penitentiary, stating
that he was a witness to the kilUng and that
the adopted son was the guilty party. And
then, by the mercy of a stage Providence, the
villain walks to a conveniently nearby window
and succumbs to a kindly shaft of lightning
from the heavenly wings above.
Can you for a moment imagine an author
asking an audience to accept the following with-
out protest? One scene in his play shows the
death chamber at Sing Sing prison, and the
electric chair awaiting its victim. In an ad-
joining cell sits a condemned man who must
die at daybreak, reading his bible. An Irish
guard detailed to watch him breaks the silence
with: "It seems hard for a fine young fellow
like that to die for a murder he never committed.
He hopes for a pardon, but it is too late. He
must die tomorrow. It's too bad, but it is hard
to keep a good man down." This is a music
cue, and after a chord, the jailer steps to the
footlights and sings the song, ''It's Hard to
Keep a Good Man Down." For an encore he
sings "Mr. Dooley." Soon after a voice is
64 Driftwood of the Staf^e.
heard without. The unfortunate man rises to
his feet. The stone walls totter and fall, and
in another instant his faithful sweetheart rides
into the death chamber on the back of a foam-
ing steed and hands the condemned man a
In a production of *'The Merchant of
Venice" at a Chicago theater, a room in
Portia's house is illuminated with incandescent
lamps. Shylock takes snuff, and a band of
serenaders sing the Pilgrims' chorus from
"Tannhauser" as they float down the canal.
One of Chicago's Ten, Twenty, Thirty the-
aters, where they seemed to be absolutely with-
out fear in the matter of productions, was to
have a week of "Cyrano de Bergerac." It is
related that when the stage manager first an-
nounced to the company that the play was to
go on, one of the extra ladies employed in the
theater exclaimed : " 'Cyrano de Bergerac'
I've never seen that piece." And a wise
maiden standing next to her, who had been
associated with productions in that particular
abiding place of the classics long enough and
often enough to feel that she was somewhat of an
authority, stopped chewing gum and observed:
**Well, if I seen it once I seen it a dozen times.
Driftwood of the Stage. 65
Been 011 in it twict. Personally, I think it was
the best thing that was ever writ." On its
presentation one of the actresses had what is
called in stage parlance ''an entrance ad lib" —
which means that she had a few idle seconds to
fill in with any bit of business her own in-
genuity might suggest. This she did by
caroling a few bars of ''The Marseillaise." The
manager rushed back on the opening night and
said, "Young woman, do you know that you
are beating the flag by about four hundred
Of the importance of detail in the drama it
is told how Charlotte Cushman was once act-
ing Meg Merrilles, when Henry Irving, then
a young actor, was in the cast. In one scene,
in answer to Meg's appeal for money, it was
Mr. Irving's business to hand her his purse,
filled with broken crockery, then the stage
substitute for the coin of the realm. Miss
Cushman gently suggested to him the superior
truth of opening the purse, selecting a coin and
giving it to her. No matter how magnificent
it might look, argued the great actress, it was
hardly natural for a gentleman to hand over
a full purse of gold to a crazy mendicant.
When Sardou ofiFered to the public his play
66 Driftwood of the Stage.
of "Dante," a piece of business was introduced
which called for a rebuke from one who seemed
well versed as an archaeologist and antiquarian,
in the last tragic scene at Avignon a clock case
is opened by the hand of Dante, and a pendu-
lum in the form of Time wielding a scythe is
revealed. Unfortunately, in the days of the
great poet neither the pendulum nor a clock
cased for its protection had been invented. At
that time the power provided by the weight
escaped through the action of a balanced bar,
loaded at its extremities. No clock had a
pendulum before 1657 — 336 years after
Dante's death — in which year was devised the
short or bob pendulum, which was first brought
into use in England in 1661. This attribute of
the train of wheels that served to mark the flight
of time continued until 1680, when the long
pendulum, vibrating in a smaller arc, and with
a greater regularity, and other improvements —
including the case for protection — were intro-
duced. Thus a Dutch conceit of later times
forced its spectacular way into Italian drama.
About the worst on record was a production
in which the heroine, reduced to poverty, is
found living in a bare room on the top floor
of a tenement house. A single chair and a
Driftwood of the Stage. 67
pine table, on which are a pitcher and a crust
of bread is all that can be seen. The villain
enters, and his advances being repulsed, he
leaves, threatening to burn the house. Smoke
begins to fill the room. The lady tries the door.
It is locked. She rushes to the window. It is
so high no one on the street can hear her voice.
The telephone! Through this instrument she
informs the outside world that the house is on
fire, and help arrives. Just think of it! In an
apartment of this kind to find hanging on the
wall a telephone that costs at least twenty-four
dollars a year, payable quarterly in advance !
A Brooklyn theater, which presented the bet-
ter class of plays with a carefully selected stock
company, offered a play of the time of Na-
poleon. The opening act was a representation
of a drawing-room in the Hotel Chautereine,
Josephine's residence in the Rue de la Vic-
toire, at the time of the return from Egypt in
1799. One of the ladies in tlje cast is discov-
ered sitting at an upright piano, and runs her
fingers idly over the keys. The upright piano in
a setting of this kind was, of itself, bad enough,
as they had not yet commenced making that
style of piano, the first patent for an upright
piano having been granted in the latter part of
68 Driftwood of the Stage.
1799, but its cover was an elaborate silk affair,
the side toward the audience advertising in
large gold letters the name of the maker. It
was indeed a grand sight to see Talleyrand,
Murat, the Bonapartes, and the dignitaries of
the church talking of the affairs of state and
the conquest of nations about an upright piano
manufactured a hundred years later in a small
hamlet on Long Island.
Driftzvood of the Stage. 69
FAREWELLS IN "RICHELIEU."
Even to those who take more than a passing-
interest in theatrical affairs, it may not be
known that four of our most famous American
tragedians were compelled to end their dramatic
careers and say farewell to their admirers in the
play of "Richelieu." It indeed seems strange
that these actors should unintentionally have
selected for their retirement a play that presents
one of the noblest figures on the stage — the
solitary old man who remembers his lost youth
and the dying friend who committed a daughter
to his paternal care — the unselfish heart grown
old in sorrow^ without the least hope of happi-
ness for itself, lovingly striving for the hap-
piness of others.
Even this grand character, a noble and
touching image of righteous power protecting
innocent w^eakness, could not escape the bur-
lesquers. On January 9, 1871, Edwin Booth
presented "Richelieu" at his own theater in
New York, which was revived with such
splendor of scenery, costumes and stage em-
yo Driftwood of the Sta^e. ,
bellishments that had never before been dis-
played. This play was kept on for forty-eight
performances, and during its run, in February,
1 87 1, George L. Fox presented a burlesque of
Mr. Booth's Richelieu at the Olympic Theater
in the same city. Jennie Yeamans, then known
aj^ an infant phenomena, played the part of
Joseph, and assisted Mr. Fox as the Cardinal
in drawing with a piece of chalk the awful circle
of the Tammany Ring around the form of Lillie
Eldridge as Julie. The text was followed
closely enough to preserve the' plot of the story ;
it contained, as well, a great deal that was ludi-
crous and bright, and it never sank into im-
becility or indelicacy, which is saying much for
Edwin Forrest, under whose influence the
American stage began to assume a distinctive
character, closed his dramatic career on April
2, 1872, at the Globe Theater, Boston, appear-
ing as Richelieu. Mr. Forrest obtained the
most of his popularity and large fortune by his
masterly impersonation of the Indian Chieftain
Metamora, but his Richelieu was always a grand
performance. Mr. Forrest was the original
Richelieu in this country. He played the part
first at Wallack's National Theater, New York,
Driftwood of the Stage.
in 1841, supported by Corson W. Clarke,
George W. Jamieson, and J. W. Wallack, Jr.
The part of Julie was acted by Virginia Monier.
He received the manuscript from Mr. Bulwer
direct for production in America, and brought
it out simultaneously with its original produc-
tion by Mr. Macready at the Covent Garden,
London. Richelieu was the last part played
by Mr. Forrest in New York. On February 6,
1 87 1, he commenced an engagement of three
weeks at the Fourteenth Street Theater, New
York, playing five nights a week. He repre-
sented Lear for ten nights, and on the 19th of
the same month he appeared as Richelieu, but
he was too much broken in health to portray
even the feeble Cardinal. He struggled through
it for a night or two, broke down completely,
and the house was closed. On December 7,
1872, he made his last pubHc appearance, giving
a reading of "Othello" at the Tremont Temple,
Mr. Forrest was a native of Philadelphia,
and made his first professional appearance on
the stage of the South Third Street Theater at
that city. His professional career extended
over a period of fifty years, during half of
which he was the leading tragedian of America,
^2 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
and, perhaps, the world. It was in 1845, at
the Princess' Theater, London, in the character
of Macbeth, that Mr. Forrest was hissed, and
he was refused permission to play "The Lady
of Lyons" and "Richelieu" by Mr. Bulwer, as
Mr. Macready had been successful in those
plays. This indignity he ascribed to Mr.
Macready, and an incident that precipitated, on
Mr. Macready's appearance in America some
time later, the New York Astor Place riot.
During his career all sorts of tokens of ap-
preciation were showered upon him. He
inspired as well as paid the dramatists of his
time, and the poets paid him tribute ; medals were
cast in his honor, and busts of him were made.
And his acting won direct and even extrava-
gant eulogy, not only at home, but even in
England — although there his controversy with
Mr. Macready raised up a multitude against
him, for Mr. Macready at home had a following
as great as Mr. Forrest at home.
On the east side of South Third Street,
midway between Walnut and Spruce Streets,
Philadelphia, stands St. Paul's Protestant
Elpiscopal Church, an old brick structure, dating
back to 1760. It is surrounded by open space,
paved with brick, and on the north and south
Driftzvood of the Stage. 73
sides are long lines of family vaults, where
repose the bones of many men who have left
their mark in the history of the Quaker City.
The front is screened by a thick wall of brick,
with three large wrought iron gates, through
which a view can be had of the church from the
street. On the south side of the church, the
fifth from the gate, is the vault of Edwin For-
I est, one of the greatest tragedians and ex-
ponents of Shakespeare that the world has ever
known. A slab lies flat over the aperture to
the vault, and no ostentatious monument rears
its columns to make a distinction in death.
The grave of the tragedian is simple and gives
no indication of his stormy and eventful career.
He died at his home at Philadelphia, December
12, 1872. All of his kith and kin passed away
before he himself was laid away in his family
vault, and his grave is seldom visited.
Edmon S. Conner, who made his first pro-
fessional appearance as Young Norval, in
^'Douglas," at the Walnut Street Theater,
Philadelphia, March 23, 1829, brought his
dramatic career to a close at the Opera House,
Patterson, N. J., in the spring of 1885, when
he played Richelieu for the 1113th time. It
was a favorite with him in his early days, and
74 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
lemained a favorite to the end of his career.
1:: is stated that he never witnessed a perform-
ance of this play. He died at Rutherford, N.
J., December 15, 1 891, in the ninety-second year
of his age. His funeral took place at *'The
Little Church Around the Corner," and the
interment was in the family plot in Evergreen
Cemetery, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Thomas W. Keene, by reason of illness, was
compelled to end his dramatic career at the
Grand Opera House, Toronto, Canada, May
23, 1898, the bill being '^Richelieu." The ill-
ness proved fatal, and he passed away June i,
1898, at his home at Castleton Corners, Staten
Island, N. Y.
Mr. Keene possessed a versatility which was
unusual, and he was equally at home in tragedy
and melodrama. One of his best impersona-
tions was Richard HI. When he acted him, he
was consistent, and his dressing of the part
was particularly careful and rich. For over
a quarter of a century he was a favoite with
the playgoing public, and with a limited reper-
tory he preserved a hold upon their affections
equal to that which has been enjoyed by the
most brilliant lights in the theatrical world. He
Driftwood of the Stage. 75
now peacefully sleeps in a little cemetery within
sight of his former home.
John McCullough held his last rehearsal at
McVicker's Theater, Chicago, September 30,
1884. The great tragedian had called a re-
hearsal of ''Richelieu." Never was a sadder
scene enacted in a theater. It was a mock
rehearsal. It had barely commenced before he
strayed off into the fourth act, where the de-
crepit Cardinal-statesman is intercepted in the
Garden of the Louvre by Baradas. The arch
plotter says to his companions : "His mind and
life are breaking fast."
The tottering churchman, overhearing him,
turns with reviving energy and cries :
If so, beware the falling ruins! Hark!
I tell thee, scorner of these whitening hairs.
When tliis snow melteth there shall come a flood!
Avaunt! My name is Richelieu! I defy thee!"
As he uttered these words his voice rang out
like a trumpet. A moment later he turned and
left the theater. Every one present was in tears.
Half an hour later, at his hotel, this fine actor
was told he must take a rest.
Mr. McCullough made his last appearance
before an audience at McVicker's Theater,
76 Driftwood of the Stage.
Chicago, September 29, 1884, as Spartacus, in
"The Gladiator." He made his first appearance
on the stage at the Arch Street Theater, Phila-
delphia, as Thomas, in "The Belle's Strata-
gem." He traveled with Edwin Forrest as his
principal support for some time, and went to
California with him. Was co-manager with
Lawrence Barrett in the opening of the Bush
Street Theater, San Francisco, in January,
1869. At the time of his retirement Mr. Mc-
Cullough was suffering from a nervous dis-
order, and his physicians ordered a complete
rest. His health did not mend, however, and
he died November 8, 1885. He is buried be-
neath an elegant monument in Mt. Moriah
Cemetery, Philadelphia. The monument repre-
sents in bronze Mr. McCullough as Virginius.
Lawrence Barrett began his theatrical career
as a supernumery at the National Theater, De-
troit, Mich., in 1852. The first speaking part
given him was that of Murat in "The French
Spy." He made his last appearance on the stage
at the Broadway Theater, New York, on the
evening of March 18, 1891, in the play of
"Richelieu." Edwin Booth acted the Cardinal,
and Mr. Barrett De Mauprat. When Mr. Bar-
rett arrived at the theater that evening it was
Driftwood of the Stage. yy
noticed that he was ill, and although urged to
go home, he insisted on playing. He managed
to get as far as the end of the third act, when
he said : '1 cannot go on."
It was announced that Mr. Barrett was ill,
and another member of the company would
finish the performance. In 1886 he formed a
professional alliance with Edwdn Booth and
became his manager. That season each of them
headed separate companies, but Mr. Barrett di-
lected both tours. The following season, which
began at Buffalo, N. Y., September 12, 1887,
the two tragedians acted together, beginning
with a production of "Julius Csesar." The
combination lasted until the death of Mr. Bar-
rett. He died at New York, March, 20, 1891,
and four days later was laid to rest at Cohasset,
Edwin Booth, whose first appearance on the
stage occurred at the Boston Museum, Sep-
tember 10, 1849, as Tressil in "Richard III.,"
brought his dramatic career to a close at the
Academy of Music, Brooklyn, N. Y., April 4,
1 89 1, in the character of Hamlet. He spent
the most of his time after this at the Players'
Club, where he had his residence. He was
stricken with paralysis on April 19, 1893, and
78 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
lingered in this condition until June 7, when
he died. His funeral took place June 9, at
"The Little Church Around the Corner,"
Bishop Potter and the Rev. Dr. George H.
Houghton conducting the services.
On the morning of the funeral, The Players
assembled at their club house, 16 Gramercy
Park, New York, to pay the last tribute to their
fellow-member. Many spectators had congre-
gated in the street and all uncovered their heads
a? the hearse passed. The funeral procession
was led by two carriages containing the pall
bearers. Then came the hearse and behind it
followed the carriages of the family and
friends. Last of all walked The Players, led
by James Lewis, the comedian, and Judge
Joseph F. Daly. The procession moved from
Gramercy Park through Twenty-first Street to
Fifth Avenue; up Fifth Avenue to Twenty-
seventh Street; through Twenty-seventh Street
to Madison Avenue; up Madison Avenue to
Twenty-ninth Street, and westward on Twenty-
ninth Street to "The Little Church Around the
Corner." At the church gate it was met by
Bishop Potter and his assistants.
The casket bore this inscription : "Edwin
Booth. Born November 13, 1833. Died June
Driftwood of the Stage. 79
7, 1893." A wreath of laurel tied with purple
ribbons rested on the lid, and a wreath of laurel,
white roses and palms was carried behind it,
when it was borne into the church. The pall
bearers were Joseph Jefferson, Albert M.
Palmer, Charles P. Daly, Eastman Johnson,
Horace Howard Furness, William Bispham
and Thomas Bailey Aldrich. Parke Godwin had
been named as a pall bearer, but was unable to
attend. Many floral pieces were placed on the
altar. After the funeral ceremony was ended
the cortege proceeded to the Grand Central
station, whence the body was conveyed to Bos-
ton. On arrival of the train at Boston, still
another numerous company . was assembled.
There were present Harry M. Pitt, Napier
Lothian, Jr., George W. Wilson and many
other members of the dramatic profession, who
escorted the body to its last resting-place. The
grave of Mr. Booth is in Anemone Path, near
Spruce Avenue, Mt. Auburn. He was laid
beside his first wife, Mary Devlin. The re-
mains of his infant son Edgar, child of his
second wife, Mary F. McVicker, are also buried
there. The spot is marked by a handsome
8o Driftwood of the Stag^e.
SAWDUST AND SPANGLES.
There is a season in the year when the worthy
villager will retire to rest at night and in the
morning find that mammoth spreads of canvas
have sprung up on the green as if by magic.
He has slept while hustling men have stolen
into town and taken possession of it. Soon
there is music, then a parade, and a little later
the ticket wagon opens. The performances go
off merrily to the music of the band and the
crackle of peanuts. Night comes on and the
showman and his world of wonders disappear
as magically as they came.
It is safe to say that all the world loves a
cjrcus, and there is nothing in the amusement
line that can so thoroughly stir up the individual
or that can turn a community topsy-turvy so
successfully. Nevertheless, in some sections of
the country prejudice against the circus is so
pronounced that licenses to exhibit cannot be
obtained at all, and in some places the fee is put
ac so high a figure as to make it absolutely
Driftwood of the Stage. 8i
It once occurred that New Brunswick, N. J.,
aldermen found out what it means to run
counter to. public opinion. During the winter
the aldermen revised the ordinances of the city
and fixed the license fee for circuses at $250.
People did not think much about circuses then,
but when the good old summer time came round
and one circus after another, after learning of
the license fee at New Brunswick, passed
through the town, going from Elizabeth to
Trenton, or from Trenton to Elizabeth, the citi-
zens awoke to the extent of the blunder that
had been committed.
The climax came when the Barnum and
Bailey Circus, after billing the town, changed its
route, and cut out the city with the $250 license
fee. Then there was a protest, and at the meet-
ing of the board of aldermen an ordinance was
presented reducing the license fee from $250 to
$125. It was passed without a dissenting vote,
while a crowd of New Brunswickers in the
lobby cheered wildly.
An institution that in some cases represents
a capital of from one to three millions of dol-
lars, employs nearly a thousand men,
women and children, with average daily ex-
penses of from three to five thousand dollars,
82 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
which spends $i50,cxx) annually for advertis-
ing, and can comfortably seat from eight to
twelve thousand persons, is a great industrial
enterprise demanding study, patronage and re-
There is nothing in the world that makes
money faster with success, or loses it quicker
without it, than the circus. A bad day means
a severe loss and a good day means the receipt
of from five to six thousand dollars. When
there comes a hurricane or a railway accident
which kills ofif the animals in the menagerie,
depletes the working stock, and perhaps rips
many of the tents into shreds, the show must
lay off for a time with consequent losses, until
repairs are made and new stock purchased.
Many a show has been almost wiped out by a
railroad wreck, and yet in a few weeks again
found thoroughly equipped and moving along
filling dates as if nothing had happened. The
reason for this quick recuperation is that all
first-class organizations have on hand dupli-
cates of almost everything necessary for just
such emergencies. A hurry call will bring new
tents, new wagons and cages to replace the
damaged ones. Dealers who make a business
of supplying museums and circus menageries
Driftwood of the Stage. 83
with animals ship a new supply from monkeys
Marvelous discipline is necessary to keep this
little army ir\ allignment. Few have any idea
of the skillful diplomacy necessary to keep the
hundred performers in perfect harmony, one
It is when a storm occurs during a perform-
ance that the need of strict discipline is shown.
At the first sight of threatening clouds the men
are quietly given their orders. There is no con-
fusion, each one knowing just what is required
of him. The cages of the animals are boarded
up so that their cries will not alarm the aud-
ience, and the elephants are led out into the
open, as they will stampede if left confined in
the tent. When a storm descends on the circus
tent, it very often causes a panic, and these
fearless men are always prepared for such an
emergency. A couple of hundred of them will
distribute themselves among the people to as-
sure them of safety, and a hundred more stand
ready to let down the side walls and clear away
sections of seats to give as many exits as
In such trying times much depends on the
way the audience is handled. The darkness.
84 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
the howling of the storm, the roar of the water
on the canvas, the snapping of ropes, the
crashing of seats, the falling of paraphernalia,
the cries of women, the howls of men and wail-
ing of children. Add to this a picture of several
thousand distracted people, plunging and run-
ning, crawling and groveling, some making for
the center, others trying in vain to reach a place
of safety undej the seats, and one has some
faint idea of the seething confusion that would
happen if it were not for the coolness and firm-
ness of those in charge.
The employes are also expected to be ready
to fight at a moment's notice. When a crowd
inclines to be troublesome and gets beyond con-
trol of the regular officers, a signal is given, and
it is every man's duty to grab a stake or some
handy weapon and stand by to protect the pro-
perty of the company. The old saying that it
sounds better to hear people say "There he
goes" than "Here he lies" does not go with the
Without a doubt the most appreciative aud-
ience that ever witnessed a circus performance
v/as the one assembled at the State's Prison,
Jackson, Mich., in August, 1902, when John
Robinson's Circus gave the first complete circus
Driftwood of the Stage. 85
performance ever presented within the walls of
a state prison, and over eight hundred convicts
enjoyed the program. The performers re-
quested Warden Vincent to be allowed to give
a portion of the regular show, and upon leave
being granted, a ring was roped off within the
enclosure and an exhibition lasting about an
hour highly pleased the assembled convicts, who
sat on the grass about the ring. John Robin-
son himself was in charge of the unique per-
formance, which consisted of a slack wire act,
the regular tumbling program of the show and
an exhibition of trained animals. The enter-
tainment wound up with a three-round boxing
contest between Tommy Wilson and Chin
Fong, a Chinese boxer of the American school.
This country has known many severe attacks
on the circus. As a rule, these onslaughts are
made by ruffians who have been called to order
by those in charge for the welfare of other
patrons. Students in the towns where colleges
are located give much trouble, and then there is
the bully who will try and force his way in
without a ticket. Great care must be used in
handling disturbers. Courteous but firm treat-
ment is first used, and if that fails then force
must be resorted to. The slightest incident
86 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
might be the cause of serious trouble, much
damage to property and perhaps loss of life.
The most serious attack on the circus was
that made on the John Robinson show at Jack-
sonville, Texas, in 1872. Thousands of dollars
of damage was done the belongings of the com-
pany. Many lives were lost, and the list of
wounded ran up in the hundreds. It was long
before the show recovered from the damage
done to the stock, wagons and canvas, as they
were compelled to cancel many dates until re-
pairs were made, new stock purchased and the
ranks filled with new recruits.
The Wallace show while exhibiting at Mt.
Carmel, Pa., was attacked by a party of miners
who tried to force their way in without tickets.
Persuasion was tried, but it seemed to be of no
use. A force of employes prevented their en-
trance, and the miners took out knives and
Started to cut the canvas. The management
saw something had to be done and done quickly.
The whistle was blown, every employe yelled
'*Hey, Rube!" and a fight was on. It took the
offenders but a short time to realize that the
company was ready at all times to protect its
Several encounters have taken place between
Driftwood of the Stag^e. 87
the students and show people at Ann Arbor,
Mich. An attack was made on the Forepaugh
show at this place in 1882, in which many were
injured, but the fight between the students and
the same company a few years later was a ter-
rible conflict, resulting not only in the destruc-
tion of much property, but in the loss of several
lives, and scores of wounded. The fight started
by an usher asking two of the college boys to
cease annoying some persons in the audience
who had complained of their actions. Their
defiance to the officers was followed by their
expulsion. After the performance a large crowd
of the students attacked the showmen, but were
beaten back. Later they returned with rein-
forcements, and when the tent was dropped a
rush was made across the fallen canvas and as
they ran poured acid, burning and practically
ruining it. When the circus train pulled out
they threw missiles at the cars, breaking the
windows and injuring several performers who
were asleep at the time.
The Barnum and Bailey Circus, while ex-
hibiting at Beziers, France, was the cause of a
serious riot, in which many were injured. The
crowd, seeking admissiqp to the performance
was greater than the tent could accommodate,
88 Driftwood of the Stage.
and those who were unable to enter began ston-
ing the circus employes, five of whom were in-
jured. The crowd numbered about seven
thousand. They cut the tent ropes, and several
thousand persons forced their way to the arena.
The police were powerless to check them.
Troops were called out and restored order, fin-
ally driving the rioters away, but not until
much damage had been done to the property
of the company.
For many years there was an unwritten law
prohibiting a circus from playing at Princeton,
N. J. A few years ago Pawnee Bill's Wild
West visited the town and the students were
determined to break up the morning parade.
Obstructions were placed in the streets, mis-
siles were thrown at the riders, and insulting
remarks made to the women. No attention
was paid to the actions of the mob until one
of the lady riders was struck by a stone and
knocked from her horse. The town authori-
ties were powerless, and st^ps were necessary
for their own safety. The signal was given to
turn the Indians, Rough Riders and bolo men
loose. The company were able to reach the
show grounds, but noj until several of the em-
ployes were badly hurt.
Driftwood of the Stage. 89
Some years ago Sells Brothers' Circus visited
New Haven, Ct. They had played the town
the year before and were badly treated by the
college boys. The manager was informed that
an attempt would be made to break up the
show, and it was arranged to give them a warm
reception. A section of seats over a mud pud-
dle was set aside for their use, and on entering
they were shown to these seats by the ushers.
The performers were instructed to pay no at-
tention to any remarks that might be made,
and all went well until the closing act, when
the crowd began throwing missiles into the ring
to scare the horses. When their actions got be-
yond control a force of employes removed the
supports from this section of seats and the dis-
turbers were sent floundering in the mud. This
was a new line of warfare, and there was no
A small traveling circus was touring the
south and had pitched its canvas in a lively
Kentucky town. Those were the days when
the feudists were most active, and a movement
ir. the direction of the hip pocket was liable to
result disastrously. The town had one par-
ticularly "bad man," who was said to be as
gentle as a lamb when sober, but who was always
90 Driftwood of the Stage.
looking for trouble when under the influence
of liquor, which was a greater part of the time.
This fellow had several enemies, the ill-feeling
having grown out of the deplorable family'
feuds ihat have so stained the history of cer-
tain parts of the south. He was in prime con-
dition for "shooting up the town" circus day,
and he thought he would go over to the scene
of hilarity and stir up a little excitement.
"I'll jes' go up thar an' tickle th' b'ars a bit,"
he said, as he lumbered in the direction of the
Pretty soon the fellow swaggered up to the
entrance and started to go in without the for-
mality of presenting a ticket.
"Hold on, there," said the big man at the
entrance, "where's yer ticket, pardner ?"
For reply the "bad man" brushed his six-
shooter tantalizingly in front of the nose of the
ticket man, saying, " 'Tain't what you want
that does ye good ; it's what ye git — see !"
Needless to say, he passed into the circus
without a ticket. He still had his gun in full
display when he rolled into the grounds. There
were several of his enemies present, and when
they saw him with his gun out there was
promiscuous firing. Of course, there was an
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 91
instant panic within the tent. The rush for
cover brought down a section of seats, and
during the excitement many women fainted.
To add to the terror of the occasion some
of the performing animals broke from the ring
and ran away. One of the lady riders lost her
head completely, and ran helter-skelter into the
middle of the river that bordered on the circus
grounds. She was up to her neck in the water
when the excitement subsided, and it was with
some difficulty that she could be persuaded to
come ashore. The count-up revealed no fatali-
ties, but it was a bad day for that circus.
92 Driftzvood of the Staf^e.
SUPERSTITION AND SLANG.
Actors have more superstitions than any
other class of people. Usually they attach the
utmost importance to them, and circumstances
often arise by which they are made pitifully
unhappy by reason of some impending calamity
which has been brought about by an inoppor-
tune meeting with a cross-eyed man, for in-
stance. The really intelligent men and women
of the profession seem to be as hopelessly tarred
v/ith the stick of superstition as the humblest
of the lot. Here are a few superstitions that
are not generally known to outsiders.
Whistling by one member of a company in
the dressing room of another is a sure sign that
the company will close its season suddenly.
Coming to the first rehearsal letter perfect in
a part is proof eterne that you will stick in your
lines at the opening performance.
An actor will not walk under a ladder at any
time, and will go a long distance out of his
way to avoid doing so. Humming or singing
at the table is considered more of a sign of bad
JAMKS K. HACKETT.
Driftwood of the Stage. 93
luck than a lack of good manners. Green
paper, green tickets, or green ink used in the
printing is always looked upon with suspicion.
Nothing will scatter a party of actors quicker
than a load of empty barrels coming towards
The wagon show has a superstition entirely
its own. If they should pass a cemetery on
their entrance into a town, it means much to
them, and will say: "Graveyard to the right;
good house to-night !" Suspicion of bad business
follows if situated on the left of the road.
Another popular superstition is that a rope-
bound trunk is a sure Jonah, and a rope-bound
trunk will not be tolerated by the majestic
persons that handle the baggage. A round-
top trunk is believed to be one of the biggest
Jonahs in the business. Actors will never pass
each other on a stairway if it can be avoided.
The one who has made the most progress going
up or down is given the right of way. The
other will step back.
Certain things which are all right during
a regular performance must not be done at
rehearsal, such as speaking the "tag" or last line
of the play. To whistle in the dressing room
means that the man nearest the door will be
94 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
sure to get his two weeks' notice. If the figure
3 is seen on a locomotive the actor should turn
his back to it. Never look through a broken^
mirror. Never twirl a chair about on one of
its legs on the stage. Do not return to your
dressing room if anything has been forgotten.
Never quote "Macbeth" in the dressing room.
It is considered unlucky to leave a hat on
the bed. It must be removed and hanged else-
where before it is worn, and must not be
touched until another hat is on the wearer^s
head. A terrible calamity is supposed to be the
fate of any person who would put a pair of
shoes on a bed, even if they were in the original
Nothing will so stir up an opera company
as to ascertain that there is a corpse in the
^^gg^g^e car of the train on which they are
traveling. With the circus it is considered
good luck to have a hunchback with the com-
pany. It is considered unlucky to have two of
them in the same company. A company of
thirteen members means that three of them will
be changed before the season ends. Raising
an umbrella in a play is a sure sign that all
holiday business and special performances for
that season will be disastrously affected by rain.
Driftwood of the Stag^e. 95
The member of a company that carries a leather
hat box is looked upon as a trouble breeder.
The first ticket taken at the door must be a
paid one. No complimentary ticket will be ac-
cepted, some excepting a hunchback or a negro,
until one that has been purchased is in the
ticket box. The yellow clarionet is an instrument
prohibited by the theatrical world, and no actor
would dare to bring a yellow dog to the theater.
Some hail with delight the serving of stewed
prunes for supper, their presence assuring a
full house that night. Others claim stewed
prunes means bad business. When an actor
accepts a dish of stewed prunes all must be
eaten, if not, bad business will be attributed to
The actor will refuse room thirteen, and
hotels, as a rule, have done away with this
number. To open on a Friday is considered
a bad omen. Should a cat wander on the stage
during the first rehearsal it is a sign of success.
If it happens to be a black one, it is petted, fed
and encouraged to stay around the place while
rehearsals are in progress. If a company
should meet a load of hay while on parade, it
means good business in that town. If a funeral
is seen coming toward them the parade is
g6 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
turned up a side street or an alley to avoid
meeting. If this cannot be done, the parade
is dismissed, the members separating and re-
forming when the cortege is passed. The song
"Marriage Bells" is considered a Jonah by
nearly the entire profession. It has been shown
that almost every person who used or sang this
song had a sad ending.
Actors have been known to avoid companies
that carried three women. A gentleman en-
gaged ior leading business handed in his part
at the first rehearsal. The manager asked an
explanation, and was told by the actor that a
pleasant season could not be looked for in a
company in which were three women. There
was always trouble, for two of the women were
sure to get together and talk about the other
During the last few years a number of new
words and expressions have been coined and
added to the bulky dictionary of slang in use
in the amusement world.
There are technical terms applied to the
mechanics and the paraphernalia of the theater,
but these are not slang properly, more than are
the names for tools that pass current in any
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 97
trade in which they are used. It may be inter-
esting to know, however, that stage hands are
divided into classes, there being ''grips,"
* props" and ''clearers." There are queer but
meaningfull names for every implement used
in a playhouse, for the scenery and furniture,
for the electric lights in certain positions, for
particular dressing rooms, for the galleries from
which the "drops" are raised and lowered, for
the members of the orchestra, and for every
other conceivable thing under the sun.
To those in professional life a successful pro-
duction is a ''hit," and a failure is a "frost."
In referring to good business it is said "Wc
stood 'em up," and being denied professional
courtesies by a manager is called "turned
down." Schools of acting are called "found-
ries" by those who have entered the profession
by other routes, and graduates of such schools
are called "castings."
The town in which the initial performance
of a play is given is called "the dog." The ex-
pression "trying it on the dog" means the
selection of a nearby one-night stand where the
play can be properly put on and its imperfec-
tions noted. An outsider who backs a show
is an "angel," the smaller cities are "tanks" or
98 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
"jay towns," and the manager of a country
opera house is always addressed as ''Frohman."
A complimentary ticket is a "fake," and the
deadheads in the house are known as "skulls."
Members of the chorus are "the bunch," and
those of the company who do not have speak-
ing parts are referred to as "on with others."
A monologue is a "string of talk," and some-
times is called "junk." Theatergoers who do
not enthuse over an offering are a "cold aud-
ience," and to reflect on the intelligence of an
audience they say "it went over their heads."
Anything used on the stage that appeals to the
patriotism or local pride of an audience is called
a "give us your kind applause." The principal
street in a one-night stand is known as the "main
stem." Colored actors are called "dingies."
Those who play Irish parts are "harps," farmer
characters are designated as "Rubes," and a
Hebrew impersonator is a "goose" or a "Yid."
A tall silk hat is a "Hi Henry" and also an
"11:45." I'he latter expression is derived
from the fact that this is the hour the minstrels
don their silk headgear and report for parade.
If the hat is raised for a salutation it is called
a "high sign." An evening dress suit is called
a "soup and fish" and a discordant note is a
Driftwood of the Stage. '99
"barber shop." Suggestive lines are "ginger,"
and the old time minstrel jokes are "oakum" or
"gravy." The callow youth who is inclined to
haunt the stage door is a "Johnny," and those
who travel with a company and are not con-
nected with it are termed "excess baggage."
An actor who has lost his popularity is a "has
been" and one who has a tendency to overrate
his abiHty is "chesty." Those who are not
considered up to the standard are liable to be
called a "shine," and an unpopular member of
a company is generally referred to as a "heel."
The term "gold brick" is sometimes applied to
those who draw more salary than they deserve.
Those who submit to be ruled by their wives
are called "Barnaby," and are spoken of as
having to "jump through." This expression
refers to the manner in which trained animals
are compelled to jump through hoops and other
objects at the command of the master. A
person who suffers for the faults or misdeeds
of others is called a "Patsy" or a "Bolivar."
0*ne who is disposed to say unkind things
about a fellow actor is a "knocker," and a well
liked member of a company is an "ace." Money
is called "cush" and an intoxicated person is
described as having a "bun." One inclined to
loo Driftzvood of the Stage,
hi. attentive to the ladies is a ''Romeo," and to
be jilted is ''thrown down." To say they are
going to do a "Rip Van Winkle" or a "Joe
Jefferson" is a declaration to have a good long
J}J sj« :i« ^ sj« ^
Circus people talk a jargon that would be
unintelligible to the uninitiated. To those in
circus life the manager or the head Of any en-
terprise is always the "main guy," while those
in subordinate positions are simply "guys."
The tents are called "tops" by circus men, and
they are subdivided into the "big top," the
"animal top," the "kid top," the "candy top,"
and so on. The side show where the Circassian
girls, fat women and other curiosities known
as "freaks" are shown, is termed the "kid
show," and the man with the persuasive voice
who seeks to entice people to enter is known as
a "barker" or a "spieler." What he is telling
his listeners is called a "bally-hoo."
The men who sell peanuts, red lemonade,
palm leaf fans and concert tickets, are known
as "butchers," while that class of circus fol-
lowers whose methods are outside of the pale
of the law are "guns" or "grafters." To get a
person's money without giving an equivalent
Driftwood of the St(^e! \\ ,,:jLQi,, , , • .
L. - _^_4_.l |> Uv^ ;\; \ A
is to "turn them." A countryman is either a
**Rube" or a 'V^P-" I'he musicians with a
circus are known as "wind jammers," the train-
men, canvasmen and other laborers are "razor-
backs." The distance from one town to an-
other is always known as a "jump." The show
ground is called the "lot," and the dining tent
where the circus people get their meals is the
An acrobat is known as a "kinker," and all
things that are used in the ring, such as banners,
hoops and the like, are called "objects." Those
who lie on their backs and juggle children on
their feet are "Risleys," and if other objects are
balanced on the feet they are "barrel kickers."
Missing an attempted feat is called "blowing
the trick." Of a discharged person they say
he was "canned." Money is referred to as
*'coin" or "dough," and the one who pays the
salaries is either the "ghost" or the "man in
white." A trunk is called a "keester," and a
valise is a "turkey." To get away quick is to
do a "vamp," and of those who are forced to
leave they say "got the hurry."
Those who have been long in the business
are "old landmarks," and a new addition to the
profession is either a "butt in" or a "Johnny
,r, wip^,,. , '^Driftwood of the Stage.
Newcomer." Food is called "chuck," and they
say an intoxicated person is "soused." A fight
is a "scrap," but any trouble that cannot be
handled by the regular officers is a "mix-up,"
and a whistle is blown, at the sound of which
each employe grabs a stake or other handy wea-
pon and yells "Hey, Rube!' which is the call to
A proposed victim is known as a "sucker"
to the confidence men who follow the circus,
and "fanning a guy" is to make sure he has no
weapons on him before they proceed to get his
money. To "frisk" a train is to arm a lot of
husky employes with stakes and search the cars
for "crooks" and "sure thing" men. There is
no chance for argument at this time. If you
see one of these worthies leaving in a hurry and
ask him where he is bound, he will generally say :
"To the tall and uncut."
Driftwood of the Stage. 103
GRAVES OF THE PLAYERS.
The burial place of the Booth family is in
Greenmount Cemetery, Baltimore, Md. The
spot is marked by a shaft of white marble that
is covered with thick, clustering ivy. Junius
Brutus Booth and his wife (Edwin's parents),
John Wilkes Booth, Asia Booth (Mrs. John
«S. Clarke), and other members of the family
are buried in this plot. The graves .of John
E. Owens and Walter L. Sinn are in this ceme-
tery, and not far distant. Colonel John A. Mc-
Caull is at rest in Bonnie Brae Cemetery at the
In Mt. Moriah Cemetery, Philadelphia, in
the Actors' Order of Friendship lot, Edwin
Adams rests beneath a small granite monument.
Frank Mayo, Edwin F. Mayo, and George S.
Knight are interred in the beautiful Laurel Hill
Cemetery, and Harry Murdoch, whose life
went out so sadly in the terrible Brooklyn
Theater fire, is buried in Woodlands Cemetery
at the same city.
Sol Smith Russell is buried in Rock Creek
I04 Driftwood of the Stage.
Cemetery, Washington, D. C, and James E.
Murdoch at Cincinnati. Frederick Bryton,
Harry Eytinge and George W. Thompson were
laid to rest in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn,
N. Y., and Edward Eddy, long a metropolitan
favorite, lies in a vault in St. Ann's Church-
yard, New York, where he has lain neglected
and forgotten for many years. Milnes Levick
is buried in the same churchyard.
In St. Paul's Churchyard, New York, is a
monument erected to the memory of George
Frederick Cooke, on which these words are eq,-
graved : "Three kingdoms claim his birth; both
hemispheres pronounce his worth." Mr. Cooke,
who was the first star to appear in this country,
died far from home, September 26, 18 12.
Edmund Kean, while playing in this country
in 1 82 1, erected the pillar that still marks the
spot. At different times the monument has
been repaired. In 1846 Charles Kean, who
had come to this country to act, repaired the
structure his father had erected. Edward A.
Sothern repaired it in 1874, and in 1890 Edwin
Booth again put it in repair.
William Warren is at rest in Mt. Auburn
Cemetery, Boston; Mark Smith, Bellefontaine
Cemetery, St. Louis: James H. Love, Holy
Driftzvood of the Stage. 105
Cross Cemetery, San Francisco, Cal. ; Edwin
Clifford, Oshkosh, Wis.; W. J. Chappelle,
Great Bend, Pa.; Harry Mainhall, Los An-
geles, Cal.; Thomas Evans, Youngstown,
Ohio; Frank Martin, Milwaukee, Wis.; and
Alden Bass, Williamston, Vt.
Thomas W. Davey, who was the first man-
ager that Lawrence Barrett had as a star, and
who was one of the pioneer managers of the
west, lies buried in the little churchyard at
Sandwich, Ont. A few of the old guard who
accompanied him on that bleak last journey, on
one of the coldest days within the memory of
living men, in December, 1879, still cherish his
memory and comfort themselves wath the
knowledge that in this case, at least, the good
that men do is not interred with their bones.
John Ellsler, the veteran actor and manager,
was laid to rest in Lakeview Cemetery, Cleve-
John Gilbert, after sixty years' service on
the stage, was laid to rest in Forest Hill Ceme-
tery, Boston. Charles Fechter, the great
French tragedian, passed his last days at his
farm at Rockland Center, Bucks County, Pa.,
where he died August 5, 1879. His remains
are interred in Mount Vernon Cemetery, Phila-
io6 Driftwood of the Stage.
delphia, and over the grave is a monument bear-
ing a bust of Mr. Fechter, with this inscription :
"Genius has taken its flight to God." Charles
Fisher is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery, New
York, and George W. Jamieson was laid to
rest in a little cemetery back of Yonkers, N.
Y. Charles A. Garwood is buried at Atlanta,
Artemus Ward died at Southampton, Eng-
land. His remains were brought to America
and interred at Waterford, Maine. Stephen
C. Foster, who gave to the world "Old Folks
at Home," "Old Black Joe," and many other
minstrel melodies, is at rest at Pittsburg, Pa.,
and a handsome monument marks his grave.
The grave of Bill Nye, humorist, is in the
graveyard of a country church near Fletcher^
N. C, thirteen miles from Asheville.
The monument to Shakespeare in Central
Park, New York, was dedicated May 23, 1872.
The ceremonies began at three o'clock in the
afternoon, with Berlitz's overture, "King
Lear," rendered by an orchestra of one hun-
dred musicians. Chief Justice Daly made the
opening address and presented the statue to the
Park Commissioners. The statue was then un-
veiled by J. Q. A. Ward, the sculptor, and J.
Driftwood of the Stage. 107
Wray Mould, the architect of the pedestal. The
Arion Society, under the leadership of Dr.
Leopold Damrosch, sang Schiller's "Invocation
to the Artists — An die Runster." The Hon.
Henry G. Stebbins, President of the Depart-
ment of Parks, accepted the monument for the
city. Two musical numbers by the orchestra
and the Arion Society followed, after which
William Cullen Bryant delivered the oration of
the day. The orchestra again rendered an over-
ture, and Edwin Booth recited R. H. Stod-
dard's poem, ''Shakespeare." The ceremonies
closed with an overture from Schumann, en-
titled "Julius Caesar."
At the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
York, is a memorial to Edgar Allen Poe, pre-
sented by the actors of New York and vicinity.
The dedication of this memorial took place
May 4, 1885. At Prospect Park, Brooklyn,
N. Y., is a bronze bust of John Howard Payne,
placed there by the theatrical fraternity. Mr.
Payne died at Tunis in 1852, an exile from
home. Thirty years later his remains were
brought to this country and laid finally in Oak
Hill Cemetery, Washington, D. C. A neat
monument over a grave in Monument Ceme-
tery, Philadelphia, bears this simple inscription:
io8 Driftwood of the Stage.
*'In memory of the Author of 'Metamora/ by
his friend, Edwin Forrest."
I^ester Wallack, Roland Reed, Henry C.
Miner, and William F. Hoey are buried in
Woodlawn Cemetery, New York. William A.
Mestayer and Joseph Ott sleep side by side in
Calvary Cemetery, Brooklyn, N. Y. William
J. Scanlon, William J. Florence and other
famous players are buried in this same ceme-
tery. A. H. Chamberlyn was laid to rest in
Holywood Cemetery, Brookline, Mass. Wil-
liam Paull, in Bellefontaine Cemetery, St.
Louis, Mo. ; George Milbank, Mt. Hope Ceme-
tery, Boston; and Napier Lothian, Jr., Forest
Hill Cemetery at the same city.
P. T. Barnum is buried at Bridgeport, Conn.,
and a bronze statue of the famous showman
adorns one of that city's public parks. Adam
Forepaugh is buried in West Laurel Hill
Cemetery, Philadelphia. The remains of Frank
Queen, founder of the New York Clipper, were
interred in Ebenezer Church Cemetery, Phila-
delphia, the gate of which opened into his own
garden. Ten years later they were removed
to Eglington Cemetery, Clarksboro, Gloucester
County, N. J. The simple monument that
marks his resting-place bears the inscription:
Driftwood of the Stage. 109
"Called from a life of usefulness. Leaving us
to mourn and wonder — Why?"
George Jones, better known as the Count
Joannes, an actor who was not appreciated as
he deserved, was laid to rest in Maple Grove
Cemetery, Long Island. Jacob W. Thoman,
who was the original Lone Fisherman in
''E,vangeline," died at the Forrest Home, where
he had been a guest for several years. His
body was cremated and the ashes interred in the
Forrest Home plot in North Cedar Hill Ceme-
tery, Holmesburg, Pa.
In recognition of his brilliant record as a
soldier Daniel H. Harkins was given a military
burial in the Presidio National Cemetery, San
Francisco, Cal., and Charles O. White, well
known as a manager, was laid to rest at Alex-
andria, Va., among those with whom he had
fought in the ranks of the Confederacy. George
L. and Charles K. Fox, who were considered
the best of actors and pantomimists in their
time, are buried in Mt. Auburn Cemetery, Bos-
ton; Charles H. Hoyt at Charlestown, N. H.;
Jerome Sykes, St. James, Long Island; Arthur
Sidman, Tully, N. Y. ; and John Stromberg,
Woonsocket, R. I.
In the Rural Cemetery at Albany, N. Y., are
no Driftwood of the Stage.
the graves of Felix Morris and J. K. Emmett.
The body of Louis Aldrich was cremated, and
so was that of Edwin F. Knowles. The ashes
of the latter are buried at the city of his birth,
Hamlet, R. I. Odell Williams is buried at
Mechanicsburg, Ohio; Bartley Campbell and
Charles L. Davis, Pittsburg, Pa.; John W.
Norton, St. Louis, Mo.; Stuart Robson, Co-
hasset, Mass.; T. Grattan Riggs and William
E. Sheridan, in far ofif Australia, and Edward
A. Sothern at Southampton, England. Bret
Harte sleeps in Frimley Churchyard, Surrey,
William T. Hall, who was widely known
among members of the theatrical profession as
"Biff" Hall, and for many years the Chicago
correspondent of the New York Dramatic Mir-
ror, was laid to rest in Rose Hill Cemetery,
Chicago; James Lewis is buried at Brooklyn,
N. Y. ; George H. Emerick, St. Catherines,
Ont. ; and Aiden Benedict, Decorah, Iowa.
Probably the most popular of all the border
characters that were introduced to the stage in
days gone by was John B. Omohundro, better
known as Texas Jack. He was a protege of
Buffalo Bill, and dressed much after the style
of that gentleman. His pleasant personality
Driftwood of the Stage. iii
won him hosts of friends. Handsome of face
and a disposition as sunny as a child's, he was
just the opposite of what one would expect of
a frontiersman. He was one of the most
skilled Indian fighters that ever blazed a trail
through the wilderness, and one of the first
v/hite men to penetrate Yellowstone Park.
Texas Jack was taken up by the Papyrus
Club of Boston, on a trip east in the early days,
and was made much of at the Hub. His pic-
turesque frontier regalia as he walked the streets
of Boston attracted no little attention, and the
frontiersman liked the notoriety so much that
he remained for some time in Boston, becoming
a local celebrity. In 1873 he was married to
Mile. Morlacchi, the premier danceuse. Pul-
monary troubles carried off this gentle char-
acter, and his grave, near Leadville, Col., which
at certain seasons of the year is covered with
wild flowers, is often visited by members of
the profession w^ho knew and admired him. He
died June 28, 1880.
Henry Wannemacher, the well known or-
chestra leader, is buried in Arlington Cemetery,
Philadelphia; William H. Power and William
H. Power, Jr., are at rest in Mt. Elliott Ceme-
tery, Detroit, Mich.; John Wild, for thirty
112 Driftwood of the Stage.
years a Broadway favorite, is buried in Ever-
green Cemetery, Brooklyn, N. Y. Qn his
monument are inscribed these words: "Think
what the best of husbands and fathers should
be. He was that!" Not far distant in the
same cemetery is the grave of Pat Rooney, the
greatest Irish comedian of his day.
William Emmett, a prominent manager, is
buried in Rose Hill Cemetery, Chicago. John
L. Ashton and James H. Kelly, in the Elks'
Rest, Woodmere Cemetery, Detroit, Mich.
Of the departed who followed the vaudeville
and minstrel branch of the profession, William
H. West, Billy Barry and Louis C. Behman
peacefully sleep in Greenwood Cemetery,
Brooklyn, N. Y. Harry Kernell and J. W.
Kelly, at Philadelphia; John Kernell, at Brook-
lyn, N. Y., and Tony Hart, at Worcester, Mass.
George Guy, for many years a minstrel singer
and manager, is buried at Springfield, Mass.
The pall was borne by his six sons, all of whom
were identified with the minstrel line. J. H.
Haverly sleeps in a Jewish burying ground at
Philadelphia, and Billy Lester in a Jewish
cemetery at Brooklyn, N. Y.
Billy Emerson was laid to rest at San Fran-
cisco, Cal. ; Billy Rice, Hot Springs, Ark.; Jim
Driftwood of the Stage. 113
Sanford, Cohoes, N. Y. ; John Jennings, Erie,
Pa. ; Billy Manning, Piqua, Ohio ; Dave Wam-
bold, Newark, N. J.; Ben Cotton, Jr., Bristol,
R. I.; W. T. Bryant, Dayton, Ohio; Will
Irvini, Racine, Wis.; Bob Slavin, Baltimore,
Md. ; Danger Norton, Detroit, Mich.; Ed.
Banker, Toledo, Ohio; John B. Donniker,
Penn Yan, N. Y.; William Gilbert, San Fran-
cisco, Cal., and Louis Martinetti, Fall River,
J. W. McAndrews, Emil Ames and John
Rice are buried in the Elks' Rest, Mt. Green-
wood Cemetery, Chicago; Nelse Seymour, Lit-
tle Mac and Dody Pastor, in Evergreen Ceme-
tery, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Harry Dryden, River-
side Cemetery, Towanda, Pa.; Sam T. Jack,
Oil City, Pa., and Tom Miaco, Medina, N. Y.
Charles A. Vivian, an English comic singer
and one of the founders of the Order of Elks,
for many years lay in a neglected grave at
Leadville, Col., but Boston Lodge of Elks had
his remains transferred to the Elks' Rest, in
Mt. Hope Cemetery, at that city, where they
now lie. Charlie Reed is buried in the same
Charles Gilday died and was buried at sea.
They placed a mound and headstone for him
114 Driftwood of the Stage.
in the Elks' Rest, in Mt. Moriah Cemetery,
Philadelphia, beside the grave of Bobby New-
comb, who died about the same time. A few
feet away, in the same plot, are the remains of
Frank Moran. Frank Ramza died at Atlanta,
Ga., while traveling with George Wilson's
Minstrels. His home was at Birmingham,
England. ' They laid him away in the Elks'
Rest at Birmingham, Ala. James Wheeler was
the first to be interred in the beautiful Elks'
Rest in Lakewood Cemetery, Minneapolis,
The beautiful cemetery of the Eivergreens at
Brooklyn, N. Y., may well be called the city of
theatrical dead, for here, in addition to the
many private plots owned by professionals, are
the plots of the Elks and the Actors' Fund of
America. In this cemetery are the graves of
more than one thousand stage folks. The
burial plot of the Actors' Fund of America is
no feet wide and 220 feet long, and in the
center of it stands a handsome monument
erected at a cost of $5,000. The dedication of
this place of rest occurred in June, 1887, Edwin
Booth making an address on the occasion.
George Zebold has the distinction of being the
first to be interred in this plot, and at the pre-
Driftwood of the Stag^e. 115
sent time there are about five hundred laid away
in this peaceful place. Among those that are
buried there may be mentioned such well known
names as Charles W. Couldock, Charles T.
Parsloe, Diego de Vivo, Harry Watkins, Ben-
jamin G. Rogers, Lysander Thompson, H. B.
Phillips, Edward Coleman, Harry M. Pitt and
Peace be with them!
ii6 Driftwood of the Stage.
On the southeast corner of Twenty-third
Street and Sixth Avenue, New York, once
stood Booth's Theater. The work on this
theater was begun July i, 1867, and the labor
was pushed with such energy that by April 8,
1868, all was in readiness for the laying of the
corner stone. The day selected for the cere-
mony was a stormy one and but few persons
were present to take part in the dedication.
James H. Hackett performed the official acts
and delivered an address. Then with masonic
observances the corner stone was lowered into
The building was of granite. The main en-
trance was on Twenty-third Street, but there
was another entrance on Sixth Avenue. The
house would comfortably hold two thousand
persons, and from every part of the theater the
stage could be distinctly seen. It was finished
in January, 1869, and opened to the public on
the night of February 3 of the same year. The
play was "Romeo and Juliet." Edwin Booth
Driftwood of the Stage. 117
was the Romeo, and Mary F. McVicker played
Juliet. Every part of the new theater was
crowded with a brilliant audience to witness
the opening of what was then the handsomest
theater in New York. The theater did not
close at all during the first summer of its exist-
ence. The season that began February 3, 1869,
did not end until July 4, 1871.
The following season it was opened with
Lotta, and then Charlotte Cushman returned to
the stage, after ten years of retirement, as
Queen Katharine in "Henry the Eighth." It
was on Christmas night of the same year that
Edwin Booth gave his grand production of
"Julius Caesar," in which at different times he
acted Brutus, Cassius and Antony, and in which
Lawrence Barrett gained lasting fame as Cas-
sius. That revival of the great Roman play
was one of the most imposing spectacles of the
modern stage and was repeated eighty-five
In 1874 the theater passed out of Mr.
Booth's hands. After his withdrawal it was
leased by Junius Brutus Booth, Jarrett and
Palmer and others, and many efforts, mostly
in vain, were made to establish it in public
favor. Jarrett and Palmer managed the house
ii8 Driftwood of the Stage.
from May, 1874, until April, 1877, and during
their reign many stars appeared and many pro-
ductions were made. It was under this man-
agement that the following magnificent pro-
ductions were given: "Henry V.," February
8, 1875; the revival of "J^^i^s Csesar," with
the addition of a funeral fire scene originally
devised for the conclusion of ''Coriolanus,"
December 2"/, 1875; "Sardanapalus," August
14, 1876, and "King Lear," with Lawrence
Barrett as Lear, December 4, 1876.
It was at this theater that Henry E. Abbey
determined to present a Passion Play which
had been written and produced under the
supervision of Salmi Morse, in one of the
theaters at San Francisco, where it ran to
packed houses for several weeks, but was
ordered withdrawn by the authorities. Mr.
Abbey began to make elaborate preparations
for the production. James O'Neill, who had
personated the Saviour in the California pro-
duction, was secured for his original part. A
large company of prominent players was en-
gaged, rehearsals began, and the theater re-
christened Booth's Tabernacle.
. Public opinion was against the Passion Play
from the start. The pulpit, the press, as well
Driftwood of the Stag^e. 1 19
as leading members of the dramatic profession
protested against the enterprise. Petitions
signed by thousands were presented to the
authorities to prevent the performance, and
dead Jetter laws against blasphemy were
brought to light. There were rumors of a
riotous demonstration as the date of the first
representation drew near, and Mr. Abbey pub-
lished a card, in which he yielded to popular
sentiment and abandoned his plans.
Salmi Morse, enraged at the success of the
opposition, took the old Fifth Regiment armory
on West Twenty-third Street, transformed it
into a theater, engaged a company of amateurs
and advertised the performance. The police
interfered and prevented the sale of tickets.
Soon after his lifeless body was found in the
The theater was finally closed, April 30,
1883, with a performance of "Romeo and
Juliet," the same piece with which it had been
opened fourteen years before. Mme. Mod-
jeska acted Juliet. A little later the house was
demolished, and its site given over to mercan-
5j« ^ H< Hs >!< Hs
After a career of sixty- two years, the history
120 Driftwood of the Stage.
of the Boston Museum as a playhouse came to
an end on the night of June i, 1903. It was
the most celebrated, though not the oldest,
theater in America. The latter distinction be-
longs to the Walnut Street Theater at Phila-
delphia, which in part is over 100 years old.
But the Boston Museum held all the theatrical
traditions that were sacred to the city of cul-
ture. It was in the early days the home of
all our great actors. Edwin Forrest always
played there, as did the elder Booth.
For many years it was principally celebrated
for the fairy pieces produced there every Christ-
mas. "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was first brought
out in 1853, and had the longest run the theater
had yet known.
One peculiar characteristic of the Boston
Museum was its name. It was originally so
called because the word theater had a bad smell
in the nostrils of the good New England folks.
To carry out the illusion there was a large hall
in the building just fronting the entrance to
the auditorium proper, and in this was a col-
lection of plaster statuary — Daniel Webster,
Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, the Laocoon
group — about a dozen pieces.
The ancient temple of the drama never con-
Driftwood of the Stage. 121
tained a larger or more fashionable audience
than greeted the members of Charles Froh-
man's Empire Stock Company that night when
the curtain rose on "Mrs. Dane's Defense/'
which through the kindness of Charles Froh-
man, Isaac B. Rich and William Harris, was
presented in aid of the Vincent Memorial
The audience for the most part was made
up of old Bostonians who had been patrons of
the house ever since the days of the old stock
company, and came out to get a last look at
the theater where Mrs. Vincent, Annie Clarke,
William Warren and a host of other famous
actors and actresses had entertained the public
and to carry away some sort of a souvenir from
the old playhouse. Up to the time the curtain
went down at the close of the fourth act a
casual observer would never have known that
the performance was to be the last in one of
America's most famous playhouses. But fol-
lowing the curtain came the formal closing of
the house. The entire Empire Theater Com-
pany came on the stage and Margaret Anglin
read a poem by Dexter Smith.
The poem was reminiscent and historical, be-
ginning with the Museum's early days and
122 Driftwood of the Stage.
bringing it down to the present. Name after
name — Moses Kimball, Kate Reignolds, Annie
Clarke, Mrs. Vincent, William Warren,
Charles Barron, George W. Wilson, and a host
of others who have played or been associated
with the management of the Museum, were
mentioned by Miss Anglin in clever verse, and
applause greeted each. The poem was followed
by a farewell address delivered by William
Seymour, for many years stage manager during
the stock company days. In his address Mr.
Seymour traced the career of the theater from
the time it was established by Moses Kimball
in 1 84 1 down to the time it passed into the
control of Charles Frohman, and concluded his
address as follows :
"In the fleeting world, we know, all partings
bring regret, but mingled here with ours is
some cheer, too, since while we live, the good
example of this theater can never be quite for-
gotten. As age advances, the best of life is
its cluster of old associations, and these here
rise so thick and fast around us, that some, at
least, should prove imperishable. I can wish
no better fate to those dear old times and to
you all. But I would have the last words
spoken upon this stage not mine, nor those of
Driftwood of the Stage. 123
any common mortal. Let Shakespeare's be the
last! And so, in the words of Hamlet: 'I be-
seech you, remember.' "
At the conclusion of the address the orches-
tra played "Auld Lano^ Syne" and the audience
and company rose and sang the old song with
a will. Then the people passed out into the
old curiosity hall, where the orchestra played
songs of the old days. Until long after mid-
night the people lingered in the old hall, many
of them taking away souvenirs, while on the
outside a vast concourse of people were wedged
into Tremont Street listening to the music and
v;aiting to see the Museum close for the last
Shortly after 12 130 o'clock the colored porter
closed the doors and locked the iron gates, and
the historical old playhouse was a thing of the
* * * H« * *
A great lover of art, and particularly of
music and the drama, the Jenny Lind concerts
in the early fifties suggested to Samuel N. Pike
the erection of a temple that should be so grand
that the world would recognize Cincinnati in
the arts, and with it his name. Mr. Pike was
alert in business, and originator of, for his time,
124 Driftzvood of the Sta^e.
gfreat ventures. At the same time he was
debonair, chum of poet, painter, actor, singer,
soldier. In the same day or week, it seemed,
his mind would be devoted to wholesaling
whiskey, erecting magnificent opera houses at
Cincinnati and New York, and in playing the
flute at a benefit or dreaming over his poems.
On the night of March 22, 1866, occurred
the calamity that wiped out that gem in the
Queen City's coronet, the first Pike's C)|)era
House. "A Midsummer Night's Dream" was
the play that fateful night. The most gor-
geously beautiful of Shakespeare's matchless
conceptions, garbed in all the magnificence of
scenic effects and spectacular display, was be-
fore the large audience, which thronged par-
quette, dress circle and balcony of the superb
auditorium. All was animation and pleasure.
Thousands of eyes gazed with astonished sur-
prise upon the scenes of fairy land into which
the immense stage had been transformed; upon
the silvery waters of moonlit lakes, in dells
where fairy sprites, the Queen with all her
elves, were reveling; upon the magnificence of
Duke Theseus' s court and retinue, and finally
upon that most gorgeous of all closing and
Driftivood of the Sia^e. 125
The hard-handed men of Athens had disap-
peared, proud Titania had bowed in love to
Bottom of the asses' nowl, Theseus and his
court had retired for the night, Oberon and the
elfin Puck had mended their mistakes, and
made the lovers happy, the curtain had fallen
for the last time, and the audience, fortunately,
had disappeared. An hour later and fire crept
up and along the scenes, out through the green
baize, up along the rich ornamentation of boxes,
over richly gilded pillars and cushioned seats,
and up to the beautiful ceiling and dome.
Sounds were changed as well as scenes. In
place of symphony and stirring melody crack-
ling and roaring flames wrapped in a new and
terrible splendor that beautiful interior, and the
crash of cymbals and drums of the grand wed-
ding march gave place to the terrible roar of
falling dome and walls.
It was while looking sadly upon this de-
struction of his great pride that night that Mr.
Pike, mechanically feeling for his watch and
discovering that his pocket had been picked of
it in the crowd, remarked: ''Well, that's add-
ing insult to injury!"
126 Driftwood of the Stage.
They tore down the Httle old playhouse on
Eighth Street, near Fourth Avenue, to make
room for New York's new subway, and of the
thousands of playgoers who have known it in
the past it is doubtful if more than half a dozen
knew that this dingy old building was a land-
mark of genuine interest to music lovers the
world over. The house had many vicissitudes
in its latter years, but to those who frequented
the theaters of the town a score of years ago
it will be enshrined in memory. It was here
that Jac. Aberle maintained a stock company
engaged for the support of his daughter Lena,
of immortal memory. Not one of his actors
received more than twenty dollars a week,
twenty-five per cent, of which was paid in bar
checks, and Miss Aberle did not care what piece
she appeared in provided there was a moon in
it. Her impersonation of Camille, which she
gave on her benefit nights — the stage creaking
under her as she faded away and died — will
never be forgotten by those who had the good
fortune to witness it.
Since the Aberle days the house had many
tenants, including Johnny Thompson, the hero
of the old-time drama, "On Hand," various
Hebrew managers and at least one Italian im-
Driftzvood of the Stage. 127
presario. It was conducted for many years as
the Germania Theater by Adolph Philip, who
produced a number of very successful local
It is not because of Thompson or Aberle or
Philip, however, that the old Eighth Street
Theater possessed an interest for playgoers, but
because it was the scene of Adelina Patti's first
appearance before the public as a singer. Years
ago it was a church. That was during the
fifties, when Adelina Patti, then a little girl,
was living in New York in very humble cir-
cumstances and studying music under her half-
brother, Ettore Barilli, known in later life as
a singing teacher of great ability. From her
very earliest childhood Adelina impressed her
big half-brother with a sense of her extra-
ordinary vocal gifts, and he undertook her
tuition with a firm belief in the brilliant future
that lay before her. It was during this period
of her musical education that he found the
opportunity he had long wanted in the choir of
the Eighth Street Church, and there, on a
certain Sunday a few years before the civil war,
the future diva sang for the first time before
the public while her brother listened critically
from his pew downstairs.
128 Driftwood of the Stage.
The newspapers of that day made no com-
ment on the affair, and history is silent con-
cerning the success of the experiment, but the
fact that she was first heard there by a pubUc
gathering deserves to be remembered long after
Jac. Aberle and Lena and Johnny Thompson
and the rest of them shall have passed into
Driftzvood of the Sta^e. 129
When it was apparent that Georgia Cayvan,
the popular actress, so long associated with the
old Lyceum Theater successes, would be unable
to return to the active work of the stage, her
professional brothers and sisters resolved to
give evidence of their sympathy by organizing
a history-making benefit, which took place at
the Broadway Theater, New York, January 13,
1903. Miss Cayvan had long been an invalid,
and with the customary generosity of the pro-
fession every actor and actress of note in the
city rushed to the rescue of a disabled sister.
The performers, as far as possible, were the
associates of Miss Cayvan's days at the
Lyceum. Many were acting in the current New
York plays; others made flying trips from
William Faversham opened the program
with a few introductory remarks. Then James
K. Hackett, Mary Mannering and members of
the former's company gave the third act of
"Don Caesar's Return." Mrs. Langtry con-
130 Driftwood of the Stage.
tributed a monologue, and Julie Opp a recita-
tion. Julia Marlowe also recited. David Bis-
pham sang "Danny Deever," accompanied by
Walter Damrosch on the piano.
E. H. Sothern and Ethel Barrymore ap-
peared in a sketch, "Drifting Apart." Beatrice
Herford gave a monologue. A new pastoral
called "The Philosopher in the Apple Orch-
ard" was played by Fay Davis and Bruce
McRae. The Twelfth Night Club contributed
a fantasy written for them by Grant Stewart,
entitled "Columbia's Children." Other features
on the bill were the champagne dance from
"The Silver Slipper," and the Pansy song and
dance from "The Billionaire." The entertain-
ment was a financial as well as artistic success,
the net receipts being over $9,cxx).
It was one of the most splendid testimonials
in the shape of a benefit this country has
known. It was largely due to a sense of grati-
tude, coupled with a feeling of personal afifec-
tion, which led to the fine tribute to a stricken
The fact that an artist is paid for his or her
work at the time it is performed does not wipe
out that debt of gratitude which an appreciative
public feels for those whose efforts have given
Driftwood of the Stage. 131
them the keenest kind of pleasure — that which
comes from beholding artistic work well done.
Years ago, when Charles Fechter became fi-
nancially embarrassed by reason of lack of
patronage of the Globe Theater, which he had
undertaken to manage at Boston, the citizens
and fellow professionals of that city tendered
him a complimentary benefit, which took place
January 14, 187 1. The performance was one
of the finest ever given in this country. While
Mr. Fechter appreciated the compHment paid
him, he refused to accept the receipts, and in-
structed those who had charge of the affair to
turn the money over to the worthy poor of the
A benefit performance was tendered to John
Brougham at Niblo's Garden, New York, May
16, 1869. The play presented on that occasion
was "The School for Scandal," in which John
Gilbert appeared as Sir Peter and Mrs. D. P.
Bowers as Lady Teazle. What was called a
farewell testimonial to the same gentleman was
given at the Fifth Avenue Theater, New York,
May 13, 1876. On that occasion was presented
"The Serious Family," with Maurice Barry-
more, Georgia Drew and John Drew in the cast,
and "Pocohontas," with John Brougham as
132 Driftwood of the Stage.
Powhattan, and Mrs. G. H. Gilbert as Poco-
hontas. Mr. Brougham did not retire from
the stage at that time, but continued to act at
intervals until shortly before his death. His
last appearance on any stage was at Booth's
Theater, New York, October 25, 1879, as
Coitier, in *Xouis XL" Mr. Brougham died
June 7, 1880.
Matilda Heron was tendered a testimonial
benefit at Niblo's Garden, New York, January
17, 1872. A fine bill was presented, the hst
of attractions including a scene from ''The
School for Scandal," John Jack appearing as
Sir Peter to the Lady Teazle of Laura Keene,
and one act of ''King John," in which Master
Percy Roselle, a precocious boy actor, played
Arthur. Miss Heron, who had been long ])e-
fore the public, is perhaps best remembered for
her clever impersonation of Camille, and was at
one time looked upon as one of the most fas-
cinating and brilliant ladies of the stage. She
made her last appearance before the public at
Booth's Theater, New York, December 25,
1874, playing Lady Macbeth to the Macbeth of
George Vandenhoff. Miss Heron died at New
York, May 7, 1877.
Edwin Adams, a favorite actor in romantic
Driftwood of the Stage. 133
drama, best remembered for his grand per-
formances in "Enoch Arden" and "The Marble
Heart," was an invalid for two years before his
death. His last appearance on the stage as an
actor was at the California Theater, San Fran-
cisco, Cal., May 27, 1876, when he played lago
to the Othello of John McCullough. He last
appeared before the public at the same theater
at a benefit performance which was tendered
him. He was unable to act, but occupied a chair
ii: the center of the stage while the company
gathered about him and sang "Auld Lang
Syne." Benefit performances were arranged
for him at New York and Philadelphia on
October 12, and at Pittsburg on October 17,
1877, the net receipts from which amounted
to about $10,000. He died at Philadelphia,
October 28, 1877, beloved by all.
William Warren, long a Bo^^ton favorite, was
tendered a testimonial at that city on October
28, 1882, in honor of his fiftieth year on the
stage. Twice that day the theater was crowded
to its utmost capacity, and he appeared once
as Dr. Pangloss and once as Sir Peter Teazle.
He was at that time presented with a massive
loving cup by Edwin Booth, Joseph Jefferson,
Mary Anderson, Lawrence Barrett and John
134 Driftwood of the Stage.
McCullough, and inscribed with their names.
Mr. Warren at his death bequeathed the cup to
Joseph Jefiferson, who gave it to The Players.
For thirty-five years he was identified with the
stage of the Boston Museum, his first appear-
ance there being made August 23, 1847, ^^^
his last May 12, 1885, when he played Old
Eccles in ''Caste." This was Mr. Warren's
last performance on any stage. He died Sep-
tember 28, 1888.
Charlotte Cushman on her final retirement
from the New York stage, November 7, 1874,
was the recipient of one of the most flattering
testimonials that has ever been paid to any
artist in the whole history of the stage. At
the end of a brief engagement at Booth's
Theater, New York, then under the manage-
ment of Jarrett and Palmer, her farewell was
formally announced. The house was filled to
its capacity, and the play selected was "Mac-
beth," the same play in which she made her
first appearance on the dramatic stage thirty-
nine years before. After the play was finished
the curtain was raised, and on the stage were
discovered Miss Cushman and the members of
the dramatic company. William Cullen Bryant
made a happy speech and presented Miss Cush-
Driftwood of the Stage. 135
man with a crown of laurel on behalf of her
admirers. Miss Cushman responded in a speech
equally happy, but full of deep feeling. Her
last appearance before an audience was at the
Globe Theater, Boston, May 15, 1875. She
died February 18, 1876.
John Gilbert's fiftieth year on the stage was
celebrated by a banquet at the Lotos Club on
November 30, 1878, and a benefit performance
at Wallack's Theater, New York, on the after-
noon of December 5. For his benefit among
those who appeared were Maude Granger,
Dion Boucicault, Agnes Booth, Lester Wal-
lack, Ada Dyas, George S. Knight, Birch and
Backus, Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Williamson,
Charles A. Stevenson and Stella Boniface. The
screen scene from "The School for Scandal"
was presented by Rose Coghlan, Charles Cogh-
lan and Charles Barron. Mr. Gilbert's ad-
dress on this golden anniversary was the cause
of signs of emotion when he said: "During
these fifty years I have seen moving two great
processions of friends — one coming on the
stage to play their brief parts, the other passing
silently away." Mr. Gilbert's last appearance
on any stage was at the Fifth Avenue Theater,
New York, November 10, 1888, as Sir
136 Driftzvood of the Stage.
Anthony Absolute in "The Rivals." During
his career he had played eleven hundred and
fifty parts in tragedy and comedy, and it is said
acting them all v^ell. He died at Boston, June
Mrs. J. R. Vincent v^^as tendered a testi-
monial benefit performance in honor of her
fiftieth anniversary as an actress at the Boston
Museum, April 25, 1885. The program in
the afternoon was "She Stoops to Conquer."
Mrs. Vincent playing Mrs. Hardcastle. In the
evening the play was "The Rivals," with Mrs.
Vincent as Mrs. Malaprop. At the end of the
evening's performance she received an ovation,
and in a few well-chosen words told of her deep
pleasure. Mrs. Vincent died at Boston, Sep-
tember 4, 1887.
Henry E. Abbey, long a well-known mana-
ger, was tendered a testimonial benefit at the
Metropolitan Opera House, New York, April
21,1884. The net receipts were $36,000. Mr.
Abbey died October 17, 1896.-
Tony Hart, long associated with Edward
Harrigan, and without doubt the most versa-
tile performer that ever appeared in vaudeville,
was compelled to retire from the stage on ac-
count of illness. A monster benefit was given
Driftwood of the Stage. 137
him at the Academy of Music, New York,
March 22, 1888, which netted $12,000. Among
those who took part in the performance was
Nat C. Goodwin, who acted Marc Antony in a
scene from ''Julius Ciesar," in such a manner
as to surprise his friends. Mr. Hart entered
into partnership with Harrigan in 1871, and
continued with him for fourteen years. Their
first appearance in New York w^as at the Globe
Theater in 1872, and their last appearance to-
gether on the stage was at the Park Theater,
Brooklyn, N. Y., June 13, 1885. Everybody
liked Tony Hart, and his appearance on the
stage under whatever name for the occasion
was always with a warm hearted reception. By
hard work he made his way up to the top of
the ladder of professional fame, and he died
honored as one of the most finished actors of his
day. He originated many of the characters
that are now seen on the stage. Dead at thirty-
six, he was fortunate in having a consistent and
perfect career. Mr. Hart died at Worcester,
Mass., November 4, 1891.
A testimonial benefit was tendered to Clara
Morris, who through illness was compelled to
close her dramatic career. The affair was in
charge of Amelia Bingham, and took place at
138 Driftwood of the Stage.
the Broadway Theater, New York, April 14,
1903. The performance was opened with an
address by the Rev. Dr. A. F. Underhill.
Following- the address A. S. Witmark sang a
number of songs, and then came Clyde Fitch's
one-act comedy, "Frederic lycMaitre," which
was admirably acted by Henry Miller, Martha
Waldron and Miriam Bruce. Next came J. E.
Dodson and Annie Irish, in Buckstone's comical
old farce, "A Kiss in the Dark." Agnes Booth
and Boyd Putnam then presented Bronson
Howard's comedy, *'0'ld Love Letters," in
charming fashion. Joseph Haworth appeared
next in Augustus Thomas' sketch, ''A Man of
the World." This was followed by the trial
scene from ''The Merchant of Venice," with
Minna Gale Haynes as Portia, and Creston
Clarke as Shylock. The last number was the
balcony scene from ''Romeo and Juliet," played
by Edward Harrigan and Annie Yeamans pre-
cisely as the> used to play it in Mr. Harrigan's
comedy, "Investigation." Between the several
dramatic offerings songs were sung by Blanche
Ring and Adele Ritchie.
Many messages from players and old ad-
mirers of Miss Morris who were unable to be
present were received. A cablegram from
Driftwood of the Stage. 139
Sarah Bernhardt read as follows: "I would
like to be there to personally express to you my
admiration for your talent, and my sympathy
for you. You are one of those who have
honored our profession by the beauty of your
life. I salute you with emotion and tender-
ness." The receipts amounted to $6,500.
On Monday, June i, 1903, the Olympic
Theater, Chicago, was turned over to the pro-
fessionals playing at that city, and they gave
the most unique continuous performance ever
seen in a theater for the benefit of the family
of William T. ("Biff") Hall. From noon to
nearly midnight the theater was packed to its
capacity, and more than $5,000 was handed
over to the widow and children of Mr. Hall as
a result. There were no waits, representatives
were sent from every theater in town, and at
one time there were over two hundred persons
on the stage and back of the scenes awaiting
The companies participating were "King
Dodo," "When Johnny Comes Marching
Home," "The Tenderfoot," "The Little Prin-
cess" and "A Chinese Honeymoon." William
H. Crane journeyed from New York to take
part in the performance. Among the many
I40 Driftwood of the Stage.
vaudeville turns on the bilt were Ross and Fen-
ton, J. Bernard Dyllyn, Jessie Bartlett Davis,
Lew Hawkins, Gallagher and Barrett, Elizabeth
Murray and Kelly and Violette.
"Biff" Hall, as he was generally known, was
famous as a writer, dramatic critic and after-
dinner speaker, and few men in America had
a wider acquaintance in the theatrical profes-
sion. He died at Colorado Springs, Col., May
Lester Wallack met with business reverses
at the close of his career, and was tendered a
benefit at the Metropolitan Opera House, New
York, May 21, 1888, which netted $21,000.
The benefit was managed by A. M. Palmer,
Augustin Daly, and committees of eminent
actors and newspaper men. Those who were
not assigned parts went on as supernumeries,
and such an array of well-known players was
never before seen on any stage in this country.
Mr. Wallack died at Stamford, Conn., Septem-
ber 6, 1888. A performance of "Hamlet" was
given with the following cast :
Hamlet Edwin Booth
The Ghost Lawrence Barrett
The King Frank Mayo
Polonius John Gilbert
Driftwood of the Stage. 141
Laertes T Eben Plympton
Horatio John A. Lane
Rosencrantz Charles Hanford
Guildenstern Lawrence Hanley
Osric Charles Koehler
Marcellus E. H. Vanderfelt
Bernardo Herbert Kelcey
Francisco Frank Mordaunt
First Actor Joseph Wheelock
Second Actor Milnes Levick
First Grave-Digger Joseph Jefferson
Second Grave-Digger W. J. Florence
Priest Henry Edwards
Ophelia Helena Modj eska
The Queen Gertrude Kellogg
Player Queen Rose CogbUn
142 Driftzvood of the Stage.
CHURCH AND STAGE.
Those in theatrical life at times receive more
than their share of abuse. Their failings and
misfortunes are paraded before the public, but
their charities and good deeds are seldom
thought worthy of mention. In time of fire,
flood or other devastation, they are among the
first to render aid, and their services are con-
tinually sought for benefits to asylums, hospitals
and like charities. Their work on the stage is
always open to just criticism, but the faults of a
few should not condemn the entire profession.
Clergymen of certain denominations are the
chief offenders, and they never let an oppor-
tunity pass to say something unkind of the
actor. But who ever heard an actor speak ill
of a clergyman ? These good men do not seem
to know that there is an Actors' Church
Alliance, with chapters in nearly all of the large
cities, nor that many professionals are regular
church attendants and take an active part in
church work and charities. Members of the
theatrical profession are found within the sacred
Driftwood of the Stage. 143
walls as often as any other class, but they do
not boast of the fact.
Most of the comparatively few tirades against
the theater from the pulpit nowadays are based
on antique ideas of the theater. The preachers
that thus offend common sense are fond of
talking about what the theater was centuries
ago, when so-called Christians themselves,
divided into violently opposed sects, were busy
hanging, burning and barbarously torturing one
another in the name of religion.
This is a late day for any preacher prominent
or aspiring to prominence to hold forth on the
alleged common wickedness of persons asso-
ciated with the theater, and the classification
of the stage as an institution typical of hell.
That sort of pulpit talk is as obsolete as are
some of the doctrines as to human punishment
and the aberrant flights of imagination by the
terrifying means of which the old-fashioned
preacher brought his hearers to a realization
of what he pretended to believe was in store
for them hereafter if they should deviate a
hair's breadth from the path that he, acting as
an independent surveyor, had marked out. The
tremendous educational and moral force of the
stage must be admitted when one reflects that
144 Driftzvood of the Stage.
in a great city each night more people attend
the theaters than attend all the churches on a
In the early days of the theater not only the
players, but those who attended such places of
amusement were held in bad repute, and severe
laws were enacted and penalties prescribed for
both player and audience. E.verything possible
was done to discourage this form of amuse-
ment, but without avail. The theatergoers of
today have reason to congratulate themselves
on the change that has come over the world
since the present era of the playhouse was in
its youth. Thus, a Cromwell parliament en-
acted a law providing that ''all stage players
and players of interludes and common plays
shall be taken for rogues, whether they be
wanderers or no, and notwithstanding any
license from the king or any other person or
persons to that purpose. A fine of five shillings
shall be inflicted upon any person attending the
performance, and any player caught in the act
is to be publicly whipped and compelled to find
sureties for future good behavior."
While there were formerly a great many
things about theatrical performances to shock
religious people, their criticism of the stage was
Driftwood of the Stage. 145
none the less often based upon mere prejudice.
It was in order to bring about more enlightened
views that the clergy had co-operated in the
formation of the Actors' Church Alliance, one
of whose fundamental principles was that the
theater as an institution played an important
part in promoting the welfare of society. This
organization had a bishop for its president, and
had developed chapters at Boston, New York,
Philadelphia and other cities which were pre-
sided over by clergymen.
At the fair of the Boston Chapter, held at the
Hotel Vendome at that city in 1902, the Rev.
Dr. George W. Shinn, president of the Boston
Chapter, opened the fair with a short address,
after which he introduced Bishop Lawrence and
Mrs. Fiske as the speakers of the occasion.
Bishop Lawrence gave a resume of the work
of the Alliance. Mrs. Fiske said in part : ''This
is a good day for the stage and for the church.
It marks a step on the way to further friend-
ship. The players have long known the church,
but perhaps the church has not yet quite under-
stood the players. Here in our own country
we hold in beloved memory the names of the
women of the stage of yesterday — among
others Charlotte Cushman, Maggie Mitchell,
146 Drifizvood of the Stage.
later Mary Anderson, and that matchless sprite
of innocent joyousness, Lotta Crabtree. We
remember these women not only as women of
genius, but as women whose lives were inspira-
tions to those about them. These women stood
in the glare of light. There are countless others
who work humbly in the shadow. The church
should be glad and proud to know them better,
as they will be glad to know the church."
Some have left the church for the stage and
others have left the stage to take up the work
of the church. The Rev. George C. Miln gave
up the pastorate of a large and wealthy con-
gregation to seek and win dramatic recognition
as a player of Shakespearean roles- and Walter
E. Bentley, an actor of great promise, left the
stage for the self-sacrificing life of a minister
of the gospel; to visit the sick, to comfort the
dying, to bury the dead. The Rev. Walter E.
Bentley, as we now know him, was one of the
founders of the Actors' Church Alliance of
America, the objects of which are to promote
the best interests of the stage and the church
by seeking to produce on the part of each a
just appreciation of the opportunities and re-
sponsibilities of the other; and by uniting the
stage, the church and the general public in a
Driftwood of the Stage. 147
mutual effort for the benefit of all, espe-
cially in protecting the actors from being com-
pelled to play in Sunday performances.
James H. Hackett, actor, manager, and one
of the greatest Shakespearean readers of his
day, spoke and wrote several languages, and it
has been said that he frequently preached in
French, German, etc. Ackland VonBoyle, a
character actor of great merit and a member of
a well-known theatrical family, left the stage
and became a minister of the gospel.
The Rev. Dr. Mallory, at one time interested
in the management of the Madison Square
Theater, New York, was the editor of The
Churchman, the organ of the Eipiscopal church,
as well as a clergyman. The Rev. Forbes
Phillips, vicar of Gorleston, was the author of
a four-act drama entitled "Church and Stage,"
said to deal with many of the problems of the
church with a fearless hand. The Rev. Francis
H. Kelly, of Lapeer, Mich., wrote a play that
was successfully produced.
At the Trinity Evangelical German Lutheran
Church, Baltimore, Md., one Sunday night, a
drama, entitled "An Orphan," by the pastor,
the Rev. A. F. Sterger, was produced before
an audience that overflowed the church. The
148 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
daughter of Dr. Sterger played one of the parts^
and Dr. Sterger was the stage director. The
play dealt with the joys and sorrows of an
orphan girl, the stage settings were upon the
pulpit platform, and the costumes were appro-
The Rev. C. H. Jones, of the First Presby-
terian Church, of Oswego, N. Y., shocked the
conservative element of his town by making a
contract with a bill poster to bill the city adver-
tising his sermons side by side with theatrical
posters. The Rev. John Home wrote the play
"Douglas," and was deposed from the ministry
for so doing, so great in those days was the
prejudice against the stage. The Rev. Dr. A.
F. Underbill was selected as treasurer of the
fund that was raised for the relief of Clara
Morris. Robert J. Burdette, the humorist, who
turned preacher, held his first service in the
Temple Church, Los Angeles, Cal. His subject
was "Assured Prosperity."
The corner stone of the Nixon Theater at
Pittsburg, was laid with the appropriate ritual
of the Protestant Episcopal Church. The
clergymen officiating were Rev. L. W. Shea
and Rev. W. J- Dawson, assistant rectors of
Trinity Church. After Samuel S. Nixon, of
Driftwood of the Stage. 149
the firm of Nixon and Zimmerman, had placed
the box in the niche prepared for it, Rev. W.
J. Dawson blessed the playhouse and christened
it "The Nixon." A large crowd witnessed the
The Rev. Edward Davis, a well-known min-
ister of California, adopted the stage and re-
nounced the ministry. As a pulpit orator Mr.
Davis was popular when pastor of the Central
Church at Oakland, Cal., and of the First
Christian Church of San Francisco. He refused
a call to the Loudon Street Temple, Melbourne,
Australia, at $5,000 a year, to become an actor
at a small salary. Spencer Cone retired from
the profession and became a distinguished
clergyman. Charles Weeks gave up the stage
and became a preacher of the gospel. After
having abused the profession roundly he re-
turned to the stage, giving as his reason for
so doing that he was compelled to do so by
sheer necessity, having a mother and young sis-
ters depending on him for support.
W. W. Pratt, actor, author and manager, left
the stage to become a preacher and temperance
lecturer. He wrote the play, "Ten Nights in a
Bar Room." The Rev. John Weiss, of Boston,
wrote a new fifth act for Maggie Mitchell's
150 Driftzi'ood of the Stage.
famous play of *'Fanchon." The great show-
man, P. T. Barnum, was a noted temperance
advocate and lectured on that subject for years.
Dan Rice at one time was a temperance lec-
turer. To the elder Booth all forms of religion
and all temples of devotion were sacred, and in
passing churches he never failed to bare his
head reverently. J. P. Adams, a well-known
comedian, became a leader in the Mormon
Church. The Rev. William B. Shean gave up
the pastorate of a church at Peru, Ind., and
joined the circus as a lecturer on the animals
in the menagerie.
Some of our most prominent operatic stars
are graduates from the church choir. One of
the most popular opera companies the country
ever had was known as the Chicago Church
Choir Company. The Gorman Philadelphia
Church Choir Company was made up entirely
of singers from the choirs of churches at the
city of Brotherly Love.
James A. Heme would often occupy the pul-
pit of churches in cities where he would play
during the week, and large audiences were the
rule. Frederick Warde delivered a splendid
address from the pulpit of Grace Episcopal
Church, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and the interest
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 151
was so great that the church was packed an
hour before the service. The newspapers of
that city devoted many columns to the event
the following day. The Rev. Dr. Green, the
rector, conducted the services, and in introduc-
ing Mr. Warde spoke very effectively on the
relations between the church and the drama and
the great good already accomplished in bringing
The great temperance orator, John B. Gough,
was at one time an esteemed member of the
theatrical profession, and labored long in the
cause which he espoused. Bob Hart, a famous
minstrel in his day, took up the work of an
evangelist, and later was ordained a clergyman
and became widely known under his right name,
Rev. James M. Sutherland. He associated
himself with a sweet singer by the name of
Dwyer, who had long been with Bryant's Min-
strels, but left the stage to take up the work of
One of our most successful managers had a
religious objection to the giving of Sunday per-
formances, and for years refused to accept any
of the proceeds of a performance given on that
day from his partners. Many of our most
noted actors rebel against playing on Sunday,
152 Driftwood of the Stage.
and the theaters in localities that usually give
performances on that day are compelled to close
during their engagements.
It is to the church choir that the stage is
indebted for Alice Neilson, Grace Van Studdi-
ford, Fanchon Thompson, Jessie Bartlett Davis
and Adele Rafter. It w^ould be hard indeed to
estimate how many times these ladies have sung
for church charities during their stage career.
May Fielding sang in the choir of Christ
Church, Detroit, Mich., before she joined Au-
gustin Daly's company at New York, which
v»as her first appearance on any stage. The first
time lyillian Russell ever sang in public was in
the Central Methodist Episcopal Church at the
same city. Maxine Elliott began her public
career by singing in the choir of a Baptist
church in a small village in Maine.
There are many professionals who are liberal
givers to the church, as well as regular attend-
ants. Their names are often found on sub-
scription lists for the support of orphan asylums,
homes for friendless children and other church
charities. It was through Frank Queen's liber-
ality that the Methodist E-piscopal Mariner's
Bethel Church at Philadelphia was built. He
provided the money with which the ground was
Driftwood of the Stage. 153
purchased, and furnished nearly all the funds
with which to construct the church and parson-
age. This amount was $85,000, without interest
or any paper to show^ indebtedness. When the
building- was completed he gave many thou-
sands of dollars towards its support.
In different parts of the country will be found
houses of worship which contain handsome
paintings, rich stained glass windows, finely
carved altars, sweet toned organs, valuable com-
munion plate and costly vestments given by or
purchased with funds contributed by people of
Many well known professionals will not play
on Good Friday, and some have religious
scruples against playing at all during Holy
Week. For many years it was the rule that
no performance be given at Daly's Theater,
New York, on Good Friday, the late Augustin
Daly being a Catholic. After Mr. Daly's death
the custom was kept up. This mark of respect
is worthy of more than passing notice, as the
house passed into the hands of Daniel Froh-
man, a Hebrew.
154 Driftwood of the Stage.
SONGS OF OTHER DAYS.
Everyone loves the songs and traditions of
his country, but that is particularly true of the
American. He is an exceedingly emotional be-
ing; a homely ballad sung in a homely way is
never unnoticed by him. He loves the song
and he loves the singer.
Of late years there has been a tendency to
sing the street song rather than the old-time
ballad. The songs that are learned in child-
hood are rarely forgotten; they will ring true
all through life, so only those should be learned
that are good and beautiful. Where can you
find anything sweeter than "Old Folks at
Home"? It is one of our folk songs. Who
has not been moved to tears by its plaintive air
and words fraught with homesickness? There
have been all sorts of stories told about this
beautiful song, which was written by Stephen
C. Foster. His best songs were for years
credited to Edwin P. Christy, the negro min-
strel, under whose name they appeared. It was
not until "Old Folks at Home," "Old Black
Driftzvood of the Sta^e. 155
Joe," ''Massa's in the Cold, Cold Ground,"
'*My Old Kentucky Home," and the rest had
been made popular by the Christy Minstrels that
it became known that Foster was their author,
''The Last Rose of Summer" is made im-
mortal, first through Tom Moore, and also as
a musical gem from Flotow's opera of
''Martha." "Nellie Gray" is another sweet old
song. "Annie Lisle," "Sally in Our Alley" and
"Kathleen Mavourneen" are old songs full of
pathos. "Comin' Thro' the Rye," "Robin
Adair," "Annie Laurie" and "When the Swal-
lows Homeward Fly," like "The Last Rose of
Summer," are ours by adoption. "Old Dog
Tray," "Ben Bolt," "Hard Times Come Again
No More," "The Little Brown Jug" and
"Paddle Your Own Canoe" were among the
great song successes of bygone days.
But perhaps those we love best were written
during the civil war. "The Vacant Chair,"
"Tenting on the Old Camp Ground," "Just Be-
lore the Battle, Mother," "Tramp, Tramp.
Tramp, the Boys are Marching," and "Johnny
Has Gone for a Soldier," were great favorites
of the boys in blue, and "The Bonnie Blue
Flag," "Dixie," and "Maryland, My Mary-
land," were the rallying songs of those who
156 Driftzvood of the Sta^e.
espoused the lost cause. Our patriotic songs,
"The Star Spangled Banner," "America," and
"Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean," are only
equaled in popularity by "Marching Through
The lack of knowledge Americans have of
their national songs is often noted. Returning
to their native land one summer by an English
ship was a large number of Americans. On
Sunday the captain read service in the dining
saloon and at its close, in deference probably
to the preponderance of Americans in his com-
pany, designated "America" as the hymnn to be
sung. Everybody stood up and the first verse
was given with a gusto. Much weaker in
volume was the singing of the second verse.
The third began with only two or three voices
that trailed off into dead silence before its end,
though the organ kept bravely on.
Either the captain intended it from the first,
or else the weakness of the singing suggested
it to him, but at the finish he asked for "God
Save the King." Then it was that the Ameri-
cans were ashamed to listen to the handful of
Englishmen sing lustily and with confidence, led
by the captain himself, their national anthem
from start to finish.
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 157
In the early part of the sixties, the populai
songs were ''Swinging in the Lane," ''Her
Bright Smile Haunts Me Still," "Maggie May"
and "Oh, Dear, What Can the Matter Be."
Much of their success, however, was due to the
fact that they were sung in the public schools
of New York. A little later we had "Silver
Threads Among the Gold," "The Mabel
Waltz," "Gathering Shells by the Seashore"
"Put Me in My Little Bed," "Come, Birdie,
Come," and "Put My Little Shoes Away,"
which all became popular.
It often occurred that singers would become
identified with certain songs, and no one would
think of infringing on their supposed rights.
If one went to the minstrels and Dan Bryant
was on the end you were sure to hear "Lani-
gan's Ball," "Finnigan's Wake," or some other
rollicking Irish song. If Joe Murphy was on
the end you would hear "Gypsy Davy," and if
it happened to be Hughey Dougherty you were
sure of "Sweet Evelena." Fred Waltz, a singer
in the Philadelphia minstrel halls, for many
years sang a ballad called "Dorkins' Night," and
J. L. Carncross at the same city for a long time
sang "Over the Garden Wall" and "The Blue
Alsatian Mountains." The bass singer was
158 Driftwood of the Stage.
always expected to sing^ ''Rocked in the Cradle
of the Deep" or "Dublin Bay," and the
quartette were sure to favor the audience with
"Larboard Watch" and "Come Where My
Love Lies Dreaming."
At a rehearsal of the San Francisco Minstrels
one morning, Dave Wambold, who sang so
beautifully "My Pretty Red Rose" and "The
Letter in the Candle," surprised his associates
with his intention of singing "The Sweet Bye
and Bye." By some this was thought to be sacri-
legious, and would be resented by the press and
public, as it had always been looked upon as a
piece of religious music and had no place in
the theater. They were much mistaken, how-
ever. It had never been sung as Mr. Wam-
bold sang it. and in a few days all New York
was singing it. The sale of this song reached
over half a million copies. All minstrel per-
formances closed with a walk around by the
entire company, and the most popular songs
used for this number were "Carry the News to
Mary" and "Walk Along, John."
In the vaudevilles the first of the comic
vocalists, as they were then called, were Tony
Pastor, Billy Pastor, George R. Edeson and
Billy Holmes. Among the first songs that
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 159
Tony Pastor sang on the stage were "J^^
Bowers" and "Pretty Polly Perkins of Wash-
ington Square." It would be hard indeed to
try and enumerate all the songs that this gen-
tleman sang in his long career, but his most
popular ones were "Tommy, Make Room for
Your Auntie," "Jockey Hat and Feather," "It's
for Money," '"Down in a Coal Mine," "Whoa!
Emma!" and "Where Was Moses When the
Light Went Out?" In 1867 Charles A. Vivian
came to this country and brought with him
"Ten Thousand Miles Away," "Up in a Bal-
loon," and several other songs that became
quite popular. Then we had "Champagne
Charlie," "Tassels on the Boots," "Moet and
Chandon," "Any Ornaments for Your Mantel-
piece," and others of that sort. The ladies who
were billed as serio-comic vocalists used to sing
"The Ckptain With His Whiskers," "Winking
at Me," "Starry Night for a Ramble," "March-
ing Through the Park," and "The Man in the
Will Carleton, a famous Irish singer, gave
us a new style of song with his "Dandy Pat"
and "The Whistling Thief." Later, Pat
Rooney introduced "Pretty Peggy" and "Danc-
ing Round with Julia." Pete Cannon sang
i6o Driftwood of the Stage.
"On Board the Bugaboo" and ''Water on the
Brain." Most of the Irish comedians had in
their repertoire "My Father Sold Charcoal/'
"Apples and Pears" and "The Dublin Dancing
Two beautiful songs written by Matt
O'Reardon were "Marriage Bells" and "My
Dream of Love is O'er." A pathetic story has
been told of the love of the author for a well-
known actress, v^^hich was unreturned. The
announcement of her marriage to another was
soon followed by these two musical gems. A
broken heart, a miserable ending and an un-
known grave was the lot of this gifted musician.
Other songs worthy of mention were "Baby
Mine," "Wait Till the Clouds Roll By," "A
Flower from My Angel Mother's Grave,"
"When the Leaves Begin to Turn," "Seeing
Nellie Home," "Beautiful Bells," "Down by
the Old Mill Stream," "The Lively Flea,"
"Wait for the Wagon," and "You'll Never
Miss the Water Till the Well Runs Dry."
The songs of William J. Scanlan must not
be overlooked. To hear his name is to think
of "Peek-a-Boo!" "My Nellie's Blue Eyes"
and "Gathering the Myrtle with Mary." The
children of a decade were rocked to sleep to the
Drifizvood of the Sttn^e. i6i
music of his "Bye, Baby, Bye Bye." The first
to write parodies on popular songs was Gus
Williams. One of the first songs used by this
gentleman was 'Tolly, Put the Kettle On."
Among his many successful German parodies
may be mentioned ''Mygel Schneider's Party,'*
'Tins and Needles," "The German Fifth," and
''You'll Never Miss the Lager Till the Keg
Runs Dry." J. K. Emmett, who had been an
orchestra drummer in St. Louis, entered the
professional ranks as a Dutch song and dance
artist with such songs as "The Deitcher Gal
vot Winked of Me" and "Happy Leetle
Deitcher," a parody on "Happy Little Darkies."
His greatest hit was made with one of Mr.
Williams' songs, "Keiser, Don't You Want to
Buy a Dog?" Later Mr. Emmett gave to us
some of the most beautiful songs ever sung on
the stage. The most popular were "The Moun-
tain Guide,"^ in which he introduced his drum
solo, "The Cuckoo," "Sweet Violets,"
"Schneider, How You Was?" and the world-
There were always plenty of songs that told
of the beauty of certain flowers. Among the
best were "Pretty Pond Lillies," "Little Bunch
of Lilacs," "Where the Flowers Blush and
1 62 Driftwood of the Stage.
Bloom" and "Only a Pansy Blossom." The
soldier was always a good subject for the song
writer, and we were given ''The Gallant Sixty-
Ninth/' "The Grenadier Drum Major," "Cap-
tain Jinks of the Horse Marines," "The Regu-
lar Army, O!" "The Charleston Blues" and
"The Skidmore Guards."
That inimitable wit, J. W. Kelly, equally
good in song and story, used to say in one of
his monologues: "Did you ever notice how
many songs have been written about mother?
There is 'Take Me Back to Home and Mother,'
*A Boy's Best Friend is His Mother,' and a lot
more. They seem to overlook father. The
only songs they ever wrote about him had him
drunk on the street and a half -starved child
saying, 'Father, Dear Father, Come Home
With Me Now.' Another one is 'The Old
Man's Drunk Again.' Some one wrote a song
'You're So Good, Daddy,' but it was a failure.
No one would believe it. One song tells of an
old man who has reared a large family. They
have no futher use for him and he is sent 'Over
the Hills to the Poorhouse.' Even this old man
on his way to a home as a county charge is not
given a decent road to walk on, but is made to
climb a lot of hills to get there."
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 163
The old-time song and dance men were the
authors of a number of very good songs. Har-
rigan and Hart are best placed in this class, as
their first joint appearance was in a black-face
song and dance, and they soon after found
much favor with the public for their fine rendi-
tion of "The Little Fraud." Still later this
team came to the front with such songs as "The
Mulligan Guards," "The Mulcahey Twins,"
"Babies on Our Block," "Slavery Days," "Way
Up at Dudley's Grove," "Never Take the
Horseshoe From the Door," and scores of
others of equal merit.
Among Bobby Newcomb's most successful
songs were "Sweet Forget-Me-Not" and
"Crossing on the Ferry." He was the author
of many songs that became hits in the vaude-
villes. What would be thought now of a per-
son that would sing one song for three suc-
cessive years? Dave Reed did this at the
breaking out of the civil war, with "Sally, Come
Up." Several years after, in conjunction with
Dan Bryant, he made "Shoo, Fly," famous,
when the old Bryant's Minstrels were located
in Tammany Hall, New York. Ben Cotton,
the first to portray the aged darkey on the stage,
for many years sang "Old Uncle Snow" in such
164 Driftzvood of the Stage.
a manner that neither the management nor pub-
he seemed to care for a change.
The first song that Billy Emerson sang when
he entered the profession was ''Saucy Sam.''
but afterwards became identified with the "Big
Sunflower." Performers in this class had songs
with such titles as "Nicodemus Johnson,"
"Josephus Orangeblossom," "Adolphus Morn-
inglory" and ''Rebecca Jane." Those doing a
neat specialty preferred "My Gal," "Pretty as
a Picture," "Riding in a Street Car," "Dancing
in the Barn," "Where the Ivy Grows So
Green," and others of the same style.
Delehanty and Hengler, in addition to being
considered the best the stage ever knew in their
line of work, composed the words and music of
all their songs. To them we were indebted for
"Love Among the Roses," "Darling Mignon-
ette," "Strawberries and Cream," and others
too numerous to mention. They were the
authors of "Happy Hottentots," which they
were the first to introduce. The press criticized
the song as some of the lines had a tendency
to advertise a then famous patent medicine,
•Helmbold's Buchu, and they withdrew it, re-
turning to their former neat specialty.
No more are heard such sweet melodies as
Driftwood of the Stage. 165
"Mollie Darling," "Sweet Be Thy Repose,"
"Ever of Thee," ''Waitmg My Darling for
Thee," "Beautiful Isle of the Sea," "Good-Bye,
Sweetheart, Good-Bye," "Write Me a Letter
from Home," "The Fisherman and His Child,"
"The Danube River" and such comic ditties as
"Cruel Mary Holder," "Courting in the Rain,"
"The Grecian Bend," "Billy Boy," "Dolly Var-
den," "The Bell Goes Ringing for garah," and
**Lord Lovell." They have been long forgotten,
and can only be classed among the swe**! mem-
ories of bygone days.
1 66 Driftwood of the Stage.
In the beautiful Mt. Auburn Cemetery,
Boston, Mass., is the grave of Charlotte Cush-
man, laid to rest after a stage career of forty
years, and not far distant are the graves of
Helen and Lucille Western, famous actresses in
their day, and who traveled all over the country
as successful stars. In this same cemetery are
the remains of Mary Devlin, the first wife of
Edwin Booth, who passed away at Dorchester,
Mass., February 21, 1863, at 23 years of age.
She rests beside her husband in this peaceful
place. Mary F. McVicker, the second Mrs.
Booth, died at New York, November 13, 1881,
at the age of 32, and is buried at Chicago.
Jenny Lind, one of the most popular singers
ever heard in this country, died at London,
England, November 2, 1887. On April 20,
1894, a tablet was unveiled in Westminster
Abbey to her memory. The remains of Fanny
Davenport were interred in Forest Hill Ceme-
tery, Boston, Mass. The great tragedian, Ed-
ward L. Davenport, and his wife are buried
Henry B. Harris.
Driftivood of the Sta^e. 167
side by side in the same plot. Mary Scott-Sid-
dons died at Paris, November 19, 1896. Her
remains were taken to England and buried in
Woking Cemetery, London.
Mrs. John Drew, after many years of faith-
ful service to the public as actress and man-
ageress, was laid to rest in Glenwood Cemetery,
at Philadelphia, beside her husband, who passed
away in May, 1862. The remains of her
daughter Georgia Drew Barrymore, who died
in California in the summer of 1893, are in-
terred in the same plot. Agnes Ethel, noted
for her fine portrayal of emotional roles, and
who left the stage at the height of her success,
was cremated and her ashes buried in Forest
Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, N. Y.
Nina Varian, an exceptionally clever actress
and universal favorite, died at sea. The im-
pressive burial service usually accorded to those
who die on shipboard was read, and her body
Committed to the deep. Bernice Wheeler, an-
other stage favorite, found a watery grave in
the wreck of the steamer La Bourgogne, July
4, 1898. Annie Pixley was cremated and so
was Emma Abbott. The ashes of the latter
are buried beneath a handsome monument at
Gloucester, Mass. Lizzie Creese was cremated
1 68 Driftzvood of the Stage.
at Fresh Pond, Long Island, and her ashes de-
posited in a copper urn in the mortuary chapel
at that place.
Laura Keene, whose dramatic career was
very eventful, and who at one time held a posi-
tion of influence upon local dramatic affairs in
New York, died at Montclair, N. J., November
5, 1873, and was there buried in the Catholic
Cemetery. At her own request her death was
not publicly announced until the last rites were
Adelaide Neilson, a remarkably beautiful and
accomplished actress, whose farewell perform-
ance in this country took place at Baldwin's
Theater, San Francisco, July 17, 1880, died at
Paris, August 15, of the same year. Her body
was taken to England and laid away in Bromp-
ton Cemetery, London. All that was mortal of
her is now covered by a cross of white marble,
inscribed with her name, date of death and the
words : "Gifted and Beautiful. Resting." Alice
Dunning Lingard, a vocalist and actress of
much talent, who came to this country in 1868,
and appeared in many of the most successful
burlesques produced at that time, is buried in
the same cemetery.
The tomb of the great Rachael is in the
Driftwood of the Stage. 169
Cemetery of Pere la Chaise at Paris. The re-
mains of Sibyl Sanderson were cremated and
the ashes interred in a peaceful spot but a short
distance away. In the same cemetery will be
found the plain and massive arched blocks of
granite constructed by Sarah Bernhardt as a
mausoleum for her remains in the event of her
death. Mile. Henriot, the young actress burned
to death at the fire in the Comedie Francaise at
Paris in 1899, is buried in the Passy Cemetery
at the same city.
The tomb of Adah Isaacs Menken, a bril-
liant actress, who was as well known in Europe
as in her own country, is in Mont Parnasse
Cemetery, at Paris. Her remains were tem-
porarily interred in the strangers' burying
ground in Pere la Chaise Cemetery at that city,
and about a year later removed to their present
resting place. Her last appearance before the
public was at her own benefit at Sadler's Wells
Theater, London, May 30, 1868.
Arrangements had been made to produce
"Les Pirates de la Savene" at the Theater
Chatelet, Paris, in July, 1868, on the grandest
scale ever attempted, with the great American
artiste as the heroine. The air of the city was
too strong, and she was removed to Bougeval,
170 Driftwood of the Stage.
in the south of France, but disease had fastened
itself upon her, and she had to take to her bed.
The engagement was postponed for a month,
and, hoping against hope, whenever the man-
agers called they were told that Miss Menken
needed no rehearsal, but would do her best to be
at the theater in good season. Being put off
every time and unable to see her, the managers
appealed to the law, and finally took with them
two gendarmes to compel her to go to the last
rehearsal. Demanding admittance to her
chamber, her maid, opening the door, said:
*'There she lies — it is too late now." Poor
Menken had passed away that very day, August
During the Franco-Prussian war, some years
later, the Mont Parnasse Cemetery was often
bombarded, and many tombstones leveled, but
Menken's tomb remained untouched through-
out. Her grave has got to be a sort of pilgrim-
age to Americans visiting Paris, and many
people of the stage have from time to time
brought over little mementos from the grave
and placed new ones there.
Mrs. Edwin Forrest died at New York in
189 1, and her grave is in Silver Mount Ceme-
tery, Staten Island. Emma Vern is buried at
Driftwood of the Stage. 171
Leadville, Col., and a rough pile of stones placed
there by professional friends marks her rest-
ing-place. Lola Montez, best known as a
danceuse, although at different times she had
appeared in speaking parts and as a lecturer on
spiritualism, after a life full of adventure passed
away in a sanitarium at Astoria, N. Y., June
30, 1861. In her earlier days she gave away
fortunes to the needy, but died in poverty, and
is buried in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn,
N. Y. Rachael Denvil is buried in Holy Cross
Cemetery, Flatbush, Long Island.
Gertie Granville was laid to rest in St. John's
Cemetery, Worcester, Mass.; Eimily Stowe in
Rural Cemetery, Albany, N. Y. ; Sadie Scan-
Ion in Calvary Cemetery, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Ellie Wilton is buried in the old cemetery at
Flushing, L. I.; Anna Clay, at Reading, Pa.;
Dorothy Wolfe, Winchester, Va., and Jessie
May, LaSalle, N. Y.
No monument of enduring marble, no tablet
of everlasting brass, marks the spot where lie
the remains of Margaret Mather. She sleeps
in EJmwood Cemetery, Detroit, Mich., one of
the most peacefully beautiful burial places in
the country. On every side of her burial place
there are beautiful and costly monuments, many
172 Driftzvood of the Stage.
of them marking the graves of those who were
not known in life outside of their hmited circle,
and are not remembered now by others man
the members of their families. This makes all
the more impressive the absence of any shaft
by which to distinguish the tomb of this fine
It seems the very irony of fate that in this
beautiful city of the dead, where stately monu-
ments and heroic statues greet one's eyes on
every hand, there should have been no care to
commemorate the fame and distinguish the
grave of this princess of the stage. Her life
was one of disappointment, her death perhaps
a happy release, and now that of her which
was mortal crumbles awav to dust, "the world
forgetting, by the world forgot." Standing by
the grave of Margaret Mather, noting the utter
absence of any appropriate mark of commem-
oration, and seeing on every hand beautiful and
costly tokens of affection and admiration to
mark the resting-place of far less distinguished
persons, one is led to say, with Kipling : "Lord
God of hosts, be with us yet, lest we forget, lest
Caroline Richings Bernard died of smallpox
at Richmond, Va., January 14, 1882, and was
Driftzvood of the Sta^e. 173
there buried. On Christmas Day, 188 1, she
sang in the Kirst Baptist Church at that city,
and that was her last public appearance. A
singular and touching incident is told of her
burial. On the day of her funeral a mocking-
bird escaped from its cage in a distant part of
the city, and though diligent search was made
could not be found. As the last clods of earth
were being thrown on the grave of the singer, a
succession of trills and sweet warbling poured
forth from the throat of a mocking-bird perched
in a tree near by. It was recognized as the
missing bird. At sundown it returned to its
home and went back into its cage, which had
been left open at the window.
In Cypress Hills Cemetery, Brooklyn, N.
Y., repose all that was mortal of Mrs. William
Harris, who before her retirement to private
life was known as Helen Revere. She was a
liberal dispenser of charity, and died as she
had lived, one of the most dearly beloved women
in the profession.
Alice Hastings is buried in Mt. Vernon
Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pa.; Alice Montague-
West, at Lancaster, Pa.; Grace Hunter, Berlin,
Ohio; Grace Golden, New Harmony, Ind. ;
Belle Archer, Hasten, Pa. ; Kate Castleton, Oak-
174 Driftwood of the Stage.
land, Cal. ; Patti Rosa, Chicago, 111. ; Etta Ed-
munds Hill, Macon, Ga. ; Leonora St. Felix
and Katie Hart, Brooklyn, N. Y. The remains
of Helen Mora were cremated and the ashes in-
terred in E.vergreen Cemetery, Brooklyn, N. Y.
In the Catholic Cemetery at Craw fords ville,
Ind., are the remains of Irma VonRokoy, the
Austrian danceuse, whose life was crushed out
in a terrible wreck which occurred on the Monon
Route near that city. The hearts of the entire
population seemed to go out in sympathy for
this unfortunate lady in a strange land, and
one of the largest funeral corteges ever known
in that city followed her to the grave. Kate
Hassett, who met with a sad and untimely death
at Philadelphia, was laid to rest at Aurora, III.,
and Mabel Bouton at Salt Lake City, Utah.
Emma Maddern Stevens, for nearly half a
century an esteemed member of the profession,
is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery, New York;
Dolly Banks, in Mt. Pleasant Cemetery, To-
ronto, Canada; Ella Jerome, Calvary Cemetery,
Brooklyn, N. Y.; Carrie Fulton, Oak Hill
Cemetery, LaGrangc, 111. ; Addie Boos, a favor-
ite cornet soloist as well as an actress of merit, at
Jackson, Mich., and Madeline Hardy in Wood-
lawn Cemetery, Detroit, Mich.
Driftwood of the Stage. 175
Etta Butler died at New York. Her re-
mains were taken to San Francisco, Cal., and
cremated. The ashes were interred in the Odd
Fellows' Cemetery at that place. Carmencita,
the beautiful Spanish dancer, died of yellow
fever at Rio de Janiero. Her remains were
placed in a pine box fastened with an iron pad-
lock, and without a prayer or ceremony of any
kind, hastily deposited in a trench, which stood
open ready to receive those who were rapidly
dying of the dread disease.
The grave of Belle Boyd, the famous Con-
federate spy, furnishes a striking example of
how soon and easily the world forgets. For
her daring in conveying information to Stone-
wall Jackson and other Confederates she was
twice condemned to be shot. Several plays
were written about her eventful career, and she
was favorably known as an actress and on the
lecture platform. She is buried at Kilbourn,
Wis., on a sandy slope, and so unproductive
is the land that not even vegetation usually
found on dunes and desert wastes attempts to
grow where the Confederate heroine sleeps.
But two half-dead specimens of sage-like plants,
of uncertain names, are growing on the grave
at the foot of a small oak tree.
176 Driftwood of the Stage.
In Magnolia Cemetery, Beaumont, Texas, is
tlie grave of Fatma Sing Hpoo, said to be the
tiniest woman in the world. She was twenty-
two years old, weighed but fifteen pounds, and
was only twenty-eight inches high. She and
her brother Smaun had been prominent in
amusement circles for several years.
In a well kept grave in Greenwood Ceme-
tery, Brooklyn, N. Y., peacefully rests a once
sweet singer and stage favorite. On her tomb-
stone, together with her age and the date of
her death, is inscribed, ''Ella Mayo, affianced
wife of Tony Hart." Sadie McDonald died in
Australia, and the people built a resting-place
for her on a high knoll overlooking the Pacific.
On her tombstone are the words, **Our Little
Side by side in Woodlawn Cemetery, New
York, sleep Minnie French (Mrs. Charles E.
Evans), and Helena French (Mrs. William
F. Hoey), long before the public as the French
Twin Sisters, and in a handsome mausoleum in
the little cemetery at Charlestown, N. H., in
which the body of the famous playwright is at
rest, were deposited the remains of Flora
Walsh-Hoyt and Caroline Miskel-Hoyt.
In the burial plot of the Actors' Fund of
Driftwood of the Stage. 177
America, in the Cemetery of the Evergreens,
Brooklyn, N. Y., are the well kept graves of
many stage favorites of bygone days. Here
lies May Brookyn, whose sad death in Cali-
fornia is well remembered, and whose remains
were brought to the city of her birth for inter-
ment. Near by, in the same plot, are buried
many once well-known professional ladies,
among whom may be mentioned the names of
Louise Searle, Ada Gray, Eliza Young, Daisy
Murdoch, Lucille Adams, Maud Haslam,
Phyllis Morris and Carrie Howard.
Peace be with them !
178 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
THE MELANCHOLY DANE.
An actor, stranded in a small mining town,
was waited upon by a committee of miners. They
told him that they intended giving a play for
the benefit of some local charity, and had come
to ask him to undertake the task of coaching
the miners. The play was "Hamlet," and there
were four aspirants to the role of Hamlet. One
of these was a powerful Irishman, with a rich
brogue; another, a corpulent German, with a
decided dialect ; one a Yankee, with pronounced
nasal tones, and the fourth equally unsuited for
the part he wished to play. The actor called
the four men together, and informed them that
there were five acts in "Hamlet," and proposed
that he, as a professional, should take the act
most difficult to perform, thus leaving an act
for each one of the four. The proposal was
accepted. The play was given to a large and
most enthusiastic audience, while the financial
success exceeded all expectations. But the next
morning the one small newspaper of the town
contained the following:
Driftwood of the Stag^e. 179
"The play of 'Hamlet' was given last evening
by our amateur dramatic company. It has long
been a question as to v^hether Shakespeare or
Bacon was the author of this play. It can now
be definitely ascertained. Let the graves of
both men be opened. He who shall be found
to have turned in his grave is the one who
wrote 'Hamlet.' "
"Hamlet" has been played in many languages,
by actors of all ages, and of both sexes, with
elaborate scenery and with no scenery at all.
It has been burlesqued and sung as an opera;
and its representatives have been good, bad and
indifferent. History tells that Lewis Hallam
was the original Hamlet in America, playing
the part at Philadelphia in the autumn of 1759.
The tragedy was presented for the first time at
New York by the same gentleman, November
John Howard Payne has the distinction of
being the first American Hamlet who was born
in America. He played Hamlet at the Park
Theater, New York, in May, 1809, being but
seventeen years of age at the time. Other
juvenile tragedians have been seen in the part,
notably Master Joseph Burke, who played it
at Dublin, when he was five years old, and re-
i8o Driftwood of the Stage,
cognized as a star in this country in ''Hamlet"
when he was twelve.
The name of a lady is occasionally found in
the titular part of this play. The most suc-
cessful of these was unquestionably Charlotte
Cushman. Among the many other lady Ham-
lets were Anna Dickinson, Louise Pomeroy,
Mrs. F. B. Conway, Adele Belgarde and Julia
It is not possible in a single chapter to men-
tion the names of the hundreds of Hamlets who
have appeared on the American stage. The
tragedy has been played in every important
town in the Union, and hundreds of thousands
of persons have witnessed and appreciated its
Chicago gave to the world the first ''Hamlet"
acted wholly by women, from prince to page,
from ghost to soldiers, and also the first "Ham-
let" intended to demonstrate Shakespeare's mis-
take in massacring the cast in the last act. It
was Shakespeare for auditors of the most
squeamish sensibilities. There was no horrid
visible ghost to elicit feminine screams, there
were no killings on the stage, and the play was
ended with the grave-digging scene, and just
before the dreadful carnage by which Shakes-
Driftwood of the Stage, i8i
peare disposed of the chief characters. Accord-
ing to this version, Hamlet and his mother
kissed and made up and all lived happy ever
That there might be no more tragedy than
necessary, Polonius was allowed to be killed
with almost no confusion, and it is doubtful
if any but the closest observers in the audience
was aware that a foul deed had actually been
committed. Hamlet was lecturing his mother
when he noticed that some person was in hiding
behind the curtains. Stepping to the door
he drew his dagger and reached behind the
curtain as if handing the weapon to some one.
Then he withdrew it, walked back, and pre-
sently Polonius, from behind the scenes moaned
out the fact that he was murdered. Then the
Queen and Hamlet proceeded with the inter-
This same city introduced Charles Winter
Wood, a gentleman of color, ^ in the role of
Hamlet, supported by a company composed en-
tirely of colored people.
Many players have deserved capital punish-
ment for murdering Hamlet, but until quite
recently the Prince of Denmark had escaped
being placed on trial on the serious charge of
i82 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
killing King Claudius. Under the criminal
code of the State of Iowa the lapse of time since
the commission of the crime is immaterial, as
there is no statute of limitation with respect to
offences against the lives of persons. Members
of the law class of the University of Iowa began
criminal proceedings in January, 1903, and
Hamlet was indicted for murder in the first
degree by a true bill returned by the University
grand jury on February 20, of the same year.
The case came up in the junior law court of the
University, presided over by Justice Deemer
of the Iowa Supreme Bench, and the proceed-
ings were conducted with all the solemnity of a
regular criminal trial. Hamlet pleaded not
guilty to the indictment, and set up a defense
The brightest members of the law class were
concerned in the prosecution and defense of the
defendant, and Shakspearean scholars and alien-
ists of reputation were the witnesses examined
during the trial.
The jury was unanimous in its opinion that
Hamlet was not insane when he murdered King
Claudius. On the question of justification
through self-defense, there was a divergence of
opinion. After standing evenly divided for
Drifizvood of the Sta^e. 183
twenty hours, the jury finally agreed that Ham-
let, Prince of Denmark, was guilty of man-
slaughter when he killed King Claudius, and
should be resting behind prison bars instead of
being king of the stage and hero of literature,
and rendered a verdict to that effect.
Dr. Landis, an odd character, who had strange
ideas as to his ability as a tragedian, played an
engagement at Horticultural Hall, Philadelphia,
in 1883, supported by a company of amateurs.
His audience was almost exclusively composed
of males, who found no excuse too trifling for
their merriment, no jest too coarse, no uproar
too loud. He represented Hamlet with a long
black beard, and his appearance, speech and ac-
tion were so ludicrous that the audience burst
into laughter before he had been on the stage
five minutes. All through the performance the
audience talked back to Hamlet. Every time the
curtain went down there were cheers, screech-
ing, whistling and Indian war-whoops. The
police were called upon to quiet the disturbers,
and were compelled to eject a number from the
theater. His audience pelted him with vegeta-
bles and decayed fruit so unmercifully, that at
the next performance a wire netting was used to
prevent the players from being struck by flying
184 Driftwood of the Stage.
missiles and protect the scenery. At the closing
performance a drum and fife corps played nearly
all through the evening, and this, with the sing-
ing of popular songs by the audience, prevented
the players from being heard, so the curtain was
rung down and the house cleared by the police.
George, the Count Joannes, as he chose to
style himself, supported by his pupil, Avonia
Fairbanks, and a dramatic company, began an
engagement at the Lyceum Theater, on Four-
teenth street, near Sixth avenue, New York,
February 4, 1878. A repertoire of plays were
given which included "Romeo and Juliet,'*
"Othello," "Richard III,'" "King Lear" and
"The Lady of Lyons." The Count selected
February 18 for his benefit and "Hamlet" was
The house was crowded and for three hours
no more disgraceful scenes were ever witnessed
in an American theater. When the Count came
on as Hamlet he was greeted with three cheers
and shrieks of laughter. The actors were guyed
unmercifully, and the Count would occasionally
walk down to the footlights and when he could
be heard, defend them from the gibes and ridi-
cule of the audience. As the grave-digger pro-
ceeded with his work they sang "Down in a
Charlies J. Ross— Mabe;i, Fknton.
Driftzvood of the Sta^e. 185
Coal Mine." Occasionally some one would yell
*'Who is Count Joannes?" and the whole house
would recite in concert, "First in War, First fn
Peace, and First in the Hearts of His Country-
men." When those in the house felt like sing-
ing they did it with a will, and the performance
was for the most part a dumb show. Vegetables
and other things were thrown at the players and
at one another in the audience, and several
times the police were called upon to preserve
order and prevent the performance from break-
ing up in a general row.
James Owen O'Connor gave a performance
of "Hamlet" at the Star Theater, New York,
April 9, 1888. His impersonation of the Dane
seemed so absurd to the audience that most of
the dialogue was lost in peals of laughter. He
made a speech which was given three hearty
cheers. Cabbages and boquets of pie-plant were
thrown at him, and uncomplimentary remarks
made as to the ability of the players. The audi-
ence though noisy was good natured, and noth-
ing was done that called for interference by the
police. Mr. O'Connor was a few years later
taken to an insane asylum, where he died March
Stuart Robson appeared as Hamlet at the
1 86 Driftwood of the Stage,
Olympic Theater, New York, in November,
1866, in a burlesque entitled ''Hamlet, or Wear-
ing of the Black." Edwin Forrest used to play
Hamlet, Virginius, Metamora and like charac-
ters, with side whiskers, moustache and goatee.
At one time E. L. Davenport wore side whis-
kers when playing Hamlet, and Charles Fechter
wore a moustache and chin whiskers in the
This may sound strange to the present gener-
ation, as it is many years ago that the news-
papers and billboards of New York announced
the appearance of the genial Tony Pastor as
Hamlet, each evening, with the customary mati-
nees, at his theater, then situated at 201 Bowery.
Tony was not alone in the production of "Ham-
let" that season, as it was being played at sev-
eral theaters in the city at the same time.
The presentation of this play at so many dif-
ferent theaters at one time had a tendency to
bring to mind the epidemic of "Hamlet" that
passed over New York in the years 1857 and
1858. Barry Sullivan and McKean Buchanan
appeared as Hamlet at the Broadway Theater;
James Stark and the elder Wallack at Wallack's
Theater; Edward Eddy at the Bowery Theater,
and Charles C. Hicks, James E. Murdoch, E.
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 187
L. Davenport and Edwin Booth at Burton's The-
ater. During the same season at Burton's
Theater John Brougham played Hamlet with a
brogue. William E. Burton was the Ghost,
Lawrence Barrett the Horatio, and Mark Smith
played Ophelia. At this theater in May, 1857,
John M. Hengler, a prominent young tight-rope
walker, astonished the town with a representa-
tion of Hamlet, which was not, however, re-
It was on January 10, 1870, that Charles
Fechter, the great French tragedian, made his
first appearance in America, acting in "Ruy
Bias," at Niblo's Garden, New York. Edwin
Booth was at the time acting Hamlet at his own
theater, then situated on the southeast corner of
Sixth Avenue and Twenty-third Street.
It is doubtful if the acting of any one, native
or foreign, in the whole history of the American
stage, has been the subject of so much or such
varied criticisms as was Mr. Fechter. Those
who were his admirers were enthusiastic in his
praise; those who did not like him w^ere un-
sparing in their condemnation and ridicule. The
press of the city criticised Mr. Fechter's acting
quite freely, and the Frenchman foolishly ac-
cused Mr. Booth and his friends of being re-
i88 Driftzvood of the Stage.
sponsible for every adverse criticism. Mr. Booth
generously offered to stand aside and allow Mr.
Fechter to take his place. The French tragedian
declined the offer, himself appearing as Hamlet
on February 15 of the same year.
George L. Fox, who made clowning a fine
art and was then in the height of his career,
shortly afterward produced a burlesque of this
play at the Olympic Theater, Broadway near
Bleecker Street, which had a long and prosper-
ous run. It was perhaps more a burlesque of
Edwin Booth, after whom in the character he
played and dressed, than of "Hamlet." While
Mr. Fox at times was wonderfully like Mr.
Booth in attitude, look and voice, he would sud-
denly assume the accent and expression of Mr.
Fechter, whom he counterfeited admirably. To
see him pacing the platform before the Castle
of Elsinore, protected against the chilly night
air by a fur cap and collar, red mittens and
arctic overshoes over the traditional costume of
Hamlet, to hear his familiar conversation on
local topics with the Ghost, and his mild pro-
fanity when commanded by the Ghost to
"swear" was a ridiculously enjoyable piece of
acting. Mr. Booth saw this caricature of his
Driftwood of the Stage. 189
Hamlet, and is said to have enjoyed it im-
Then the vaudeville folks took it up, and Add
Ryman gave an abbreviated version of it at the
Theater Comique, 514 Broadway. The min-
strel halls also presented negro acts with such
titles as "The Black Hamlet," ''Hamlet, the
Dainty," and "The One Hundredth Night of
Mr. Pastor at the time he gave to the public
his idea as to how "Hamlet" should be played,
was surrounded by a fine company who rendered
valuable aid in making the production at his
house a success. The lines that were given him
were correctly spoken, and his chubby form was
neatly draped in black silk and velvet. Others
in the cast, however, seemed to have ideas of
their own as to dress, and Nelse Seymour, who
played the Ghost, supplemented his already tall
figure by wearing a high silk hat. The grave-
digger in this production seemed to work "ad
lib," and with his spade would throw on the
stage an assortment of bric-a-brac, such as tin
cans, stove-pipes, hoop skirts, etc., while he
sang the song, "Any Ornaments for Your
"Mantelpiece." The other parts were well dis-
tributed, the important role of the First Actor
190 Driftwood of the Stag^e.
being intrusted to Jimmy Bradley, a song and
dance man. Joe Braham furnished incidental
music to suit the occasion, and which always
brought on the fair Ophelia to the then popular
air of "Walking Down Broadway."
The soliloquy of these burlesquers was made
up largely of local topics. Mr. Ryman, gaz-
ing intently on the skull in his hands, would
begin his version of it as follows :
Who can it be?
Is it Booth, Fechter, or Fox, the sly one,
Tony Pastor, or Addison Ryman?"
Drifizvood of the Staf^e. 191
JAMES FISK, JR., IN THEATRICALS.
In the year 1868 the theatrical world was
startled at the news that James Fisk, Jr., had
purchased Pike's Opera House, erected by
Samuel N. Pike, of Cincinnati, on the corner of
Eighth Avenue and Twenty-third Street, New
York, for the sum of $820,(X)0. Up to that
time Mr. Fisk had been known only as a
shrewd speculator on the stock market and by
his connection with the Erie Railway. A few
years before he was satisfied to travel with Van
Amburgh's Menagerie, his occupation being to
help put up the canvas and act as caretaker of
the wild animals. His employer recognizing
his tact, advanced him to the somewhat more
elevated position of ticket seller, and as such he
traveled with this show for eight years.
He renamed his purchase the Grand Opera
House, and a little later purchased from H. L.
Bateman his interest in opera bouffe. He lav-
ished money on the theater in a wonderful
manner, doing many really meritorious things
to make it a first-class place of amusement. He
192 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
made it his own headquarters as treasurer of
the Erie Railroad. Its history after it came
into his possession cannot now be written. For
a time the name of Jay Gould appeared as one
of the proprietors. On March 31, 1869, "The
Tempest" was produced in magnificent style,
wdth E. L. Davenport, Frank Mayo, F. C.
Bangs, and others, of equal merit, in the cast.
At that time the name of James Fisk, Jr., first
appeared as proprietor, and Clifton W. Tay-
leure as manager.
Many were the strange scenes which com-
mon report had placed at this theater. One
famous scene was the personal encounter be-
tween himself and one of his agents, Mr.
Beside this establishment, in which he took
great pride, Mr. Fisk purchased the building
on Twenty-fourth Street, adjoining the Fifth
Avenue Hotel, and fitted up one of the pret-
tiest theaters, small, but bright and brilliant,
that New York had ever seen. This building
had been previously used as a minstrel hall by
Griffin and Christy's Minstrels. He called it
Brougham's Theater, and it was opened by
John Brougham on January 25, 1869. In the
course of two months Mr. Brougham retired
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 193
from the management and Mr. Fisk assumed
the management himself, producing opera
bouffe, Mile. Tostee and her company being
the attraction. In August, 1869, it was opened
by Augustin Daly and continued under his
management until destroyed by fire on January
I, 1873. On that New Year's day, within an
hour after the matinee performance, the cosy,
pleasant little theater was burned to the ground,
a total and complete wreck. Mr, Daly and his
company had the sympathy of all, as this theater
had been the scene of so many triumphs of
many public favorites that the whole city was
deeply stirred by the news of the disaster. The
house was called by Mr. Daly the Fifth Avenue
Theater, and opened with a comedy called
"Play," with E. L. Davenport, Agnes Ethel
and others in the cast. The company and the
management were at once a pronounced suc-
cess, and Mr. Daly entered into a career of
popularity and prosperity that lasted as long as
the house remained to him. The last play ever
performed on its stage was "New Year's Eve,
or False Shame." It was at this house that
Clara Morris made her first bow to a New
York audience in "Man and Wife."
Beside his theatrical, financial and social suc-
194 Driftzvood of the Sta^e.
cesses, Mr. Fisk had aspirations to military and
naval honors. Already an admiral of the
Sound and Long Branch fleets, he sought a
military command. The colonelcy of the Ninth
Regiment of the National Guard was tendered
to him, and he accepted it. By lavish expendi-
ture of money he soon raised it to a high grade
of merit, and it was known everywhere for its
fine uniform and its peerless band, that became
known as "Colonel James Fisk, Jr.'s, Ninth
Regiment Band." For years Graffula's Seventh
Regiment Band had been the leading military
band of New York. It was composed of fifty
men and was considered a large band in those
days. D. L. Downing, a well-known band-
master, was given authority to organize a band
to consist of one hundred of the best musicians
obtainable, and in addition to many performers
of note, Jules Levy, then at the height of his
career, was engaged as cornet soloist. It was
said at the time that he received $io,0(X) a year
for his services.
The first public appearance of this band in
their brilliant uniforms of scarlet and gold
created a sensation. Mr. Levy was given a
prominent place in the formation and played
on a gold instrument embellished with dia-
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 195
monds and other precious stones. The regi-
mental drum corps, composed of thirty picked
men, was taught to play in unison with the
band, and when the 130 musicians played to-
gether a fine effect was produced.
Sunday night concerts were given at the
Grand Opera House by this band. Colonel Fisk
showed his interest by occupying a stage box
at each performance. The finest vocalists as-
sisted at these concerts. Among them were
Signorita Farettee, Emma Cline, Miles. Cas-
telan and DeTry. Mr. Levy's cornet solos
were always one of the features of the bill. Carl
Bergman was the conductor, and Mr. Downing
was the band leader. One Sunday evening a
quartette from Bryant's Minstrels, composed of
Messrs. Templeton, Dwyer, Oberist and Sliat-
tuck, were introduced at the band concert. It
was a little bit out of the ordinary, but they
made a decided hit.
This regiment took a prominent part in the
Orange riot, which occurred at the city of New
York, July 12, 1871. The Orange societies
were refused permission to parade that day by
A. Oakey Hall, at that time mayor of the city.
Public opinion was against this action, and an
appeal was made to Governor John T. Hoff-
196 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
man, who not only gave the desired permission,
but also ordered the First Division of the Na-
tional Guard under arms for their protection if
necessary. More than 5,000 armed soldiers
and policemen escorted a body of less than forty
Orangemen who were determined to march. The
procession had not moved far when an attack
was made on the military, and the Ninth, which
was near the head of the column, were given
orders to fix bayonets and charge the mob. In
the sharp fighting which ensued many lives were
lost, while the list of wounded never became
known. In the Ninth three were killed and
eight wounded, among the latter being Colonel
Fisk. Two of the killed were Walter Prior and
H. C. Page, both members of the theatrical pro-
Colonel Fisk was a fine-looking man. There
was always color in his cheeks, and his blonde
hair crisped itself into small waves right from
its very roots. Seldom was there a temper so
sunny and a heart so generous. His blue eyes
danced with fun and no one could talk five min-
utes with him without being moved to laughter.
He loved the theater and its people. At each of
his theaters he reserved a box for his personal
use, and when he occupied it was always sur-
Driftzvood of the Sta^e. 197
rounded by a smiling, animated party of friends.
When the news of the great fire at Chicago,
October g. 187 1, reached him, he offered his
theaters, his companies, and his band for benefit
performances. And he did more. He sent out
a special relief train over his road, loaded with
flour, provisions and necessaries for the suf-
ferers. All tracks were cleared for this train,
which was the first relief train to reach that city.
When an appeal was made for clothing for those
who had lost all, out came the beautiful team of
jet black horses that he drove in the park. They
were hitched to a great white express wagon of
the Erie company, and driven by him from door
to door, stopping wherever a beckoning hand
appeared at a window. Bundles of clothing,
boxes of provisions; anything, everything, that
people would give he gathered up, with brief,
warm thanks and the raising of a velvet cap he
wore. Personally, he gathered up carloads of
goods that were rushed to the express office for
proper sorting and packing, and sent by fast
trains to the terror-stricken, homeless Chica-
On Saturday afternoon, January 6, 1872,
about half-past four o'clock. Colonel Fisk's
private coach drew up in front of the Grand
198 Driftwood of the Stage.
Central Hotel, on Broadway, opposite Bond
Street. It was about the time that New York's
great thoroughfare presents the pleasantest sight.
Men of business were walking leisurely home-
ward, ladies lingered among the glories of the
stores, and many carriages lined the curbstones.
Colonel Fisk had left his carriage, and, entering
the vestibule of the hotel, was going up the steps
that led into the hall. As he neared the top two
shots were fired at him by a concealed assassin.
One struck him in the left arm and another im-
mediately after striking in the abdomen. Two
more shots were fired at him but took no effect.
The news of the shooting spread like wildfire.
As the particulars became known the excitement
grew intense. The good qualities of the man
were alone remembered. The news had a damp-
ening effect on the gay spirits of the attaches
of the Grand Opera House, and the excitement
among the actors was not less intense. It was
proposed at first to suspend the play, but as a
great number of tickets had been sold, it would
have given dissatisfaction to many patrons of
the house, and it was decided to let the play go
on. The audience was fair in number, but it
is doubtful if "The Colleen Bawn," which Mr.
and Mrs. W. J. Florence were playing that
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 199
night, ever received a more mechanical repre-
sentation or was ever presented to a less appre-
ciative audience. The players went through
their lines as if they were performing a task, and
when off the stage congregated in the wings and
dressing rooms to discuss the latest intelligence
from the wounded man. At the close of the
performance the actors quitted the scenes in
which they had no heart, and directly the last
scene ended the Grand Opera House was left
dark and deserted and the theater was closed
until after the funeral.
At half-past eight in the evening a consulta-
tion of physicians was held and it was decided
.that nothing could be done for the dying man,
and at a quarter to eleven without a struggle he
passed from earth. The information of his
death was flashed to every part of the country
and created a profound and startled impression
among all classes. The excitement, comment
and general interest occasioned by the slaying of
a prominent man in the full possession of health
and wealth, and almost everything else rendering
life desirable, became the theme of conversation
in all parts of the land. Not since the death of
President Lincoln had the demise of any one
200 Driftzvood of the Sta^e.
man seemed to excite so much public attention
The funeral services over the body of Colonel
Fisk, on Monday, January 8. 1872, attracted
one of the largest crowds ever assembled togeth-
er at that city. When it became known the re-
mains would lie in state in the Grand Opera
House, that neighborhood was crowded with
sight-seers representing every grade of society
anxious to get a glimpse of all that remained of
a man whose history had been so remarkable.
Here the scene was one long to be remembered.
Over the Grand Opera House floated at half-
staff the national ensign. The front of the gal-
lery in the interior of the building was festooned
with black and white satin rosettes, while over
the entrance to the private office of the deceased
was a handsomely engraved portrait of him in
full uniform as colonel of the Ninth Regiment.
A little after eleven o'clock the body was borne
to the bier prepared for its reception in the vesti-
bule of the theater. It was clothed in full regi-
mentals, the cap and sword resting on the body.
The public w^re then admitted to view the re-
mains. Entering by the Twenty-third Street
entrance the spectators filed in a long line past
the casket, and passing through the building left
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 201
by the door opening on Eighth Avenue.
Among the first to be admitted to take the last
look at the dead were those connected with the
Grand Opera House.
The Episcopal burial service was read by
Chaplain Flagg of the Ninth, who announced
that the funeral services would be concluded on
the following day at Brattleboro, Vt. At two
o'clock the coffin was closed, draped with the
American flag and borne by the guard of honor
to the hearse. Shortly «f ter the procession start-
ed from the Grand Opera House. At this point
of the proceedings the scene was a most impress-
ive one. Every available spot from which the
procession could be viewed was occupied, while
the solemn stillness that prevailed added to its
solemnity. The procession was a large one, and
the column moved through Twenty-third Street
and Fifth Avenue to the New Haven depot on
Twenty-seventh Street, where the Madison
Square Garden now stands, and on arrival there
the remains were placed on the cars to be taken
to Brattleboro, Vt., for interment.
And thus passed from sight the mortal re-
mains of one who had been a vast power, but
that power was no more.
202 Driftzvood of the Sta^e.
THE ONE-NIGHT STAND.
The most objectionable feature in theatrical
life is in playing the so-called one-night stands.
Not so for lack of patronage, as the audiences
may be large and appreciative, but on account of
the stuffy, ill-ventilated opera houses and town
halls, unclean dressing rooms, and other uninvit-
ing surroundings, to say nothing of the annoy-
ance of railroad travel at unseemly hours in or-
der to make the next town. The performance
over at eleven, then to a railway waiting room
for a train that comes through about midnight
and carries you to a junction a few miles distant,
where after a tedious wait you are liable to be
bundled into a caboose attached to the rear of a
freight train and thus finish your journey, which
may take far into the next day. Something may
occur that will necessitate a rehearsal that after-
noon, and by night you are in no condition to
give a performance that will please an audience,
the management or yourself. There is nothing
in the world that will disorganize a first-class
company quicker than a week or two of one-
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 203
night stands, and there is nothing looked upon
with such disfavor by the entire profession
It does not take long for the advance agent of
a company to discover whether the local manager
takes a personal interest in the theater, or if it is
simply run as a side issue. If the manager gives
the place his personal attention it is proof that he
realizes there is something at stake, will work up
interest in the newspapers and secure a proper
showing for the advertising matter. Should the
place be run by incompetent employes the agent's
work is much harder, as he must see his paper up
and have his heralds distributed before he can
safely leave town. He knows full well that
many tons of valuable printing that should have
been placed on the wall or otherwise distributed
has been burned up or destroyed in some way,
and thousands of dollars worth of lithographs
held out and sold to "pirates."
It is by such means that the "pirate" thrives.
He stays in the smaller one-night stands, not
daring to come out into the light of the larger
ones for fear his nefarious business will be re-
cognized and he will be prosecuted. Utterly de-
void of honor or decency he will steal anything
that can be played by his company, and then add
204 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
insult to injury by advertising the play in out-of-
the-way places with stolen printing.
The local manager is alone to blame for these
irregularities. If he can find no time for his
theatrical interests himself, he should place them
in charge of responsible men. He takes great
pride in his business standing and his high rating
by the commercial agencies. A complaint of
unfair treatment at his place of business during
the day will receive his personal attention and the
offender censured or discharged, yet at his the-
ater the same night a watch must be put on every
entrance, and sometimes even at the stage door,
to prevent fraud. His horses are well fed and
watered, but no drinking water will be found on
his stage for the thirsty actor or working force.
If the stage manager of the company should ask
for water for his people, the house property man
generally knows where he can borrow a pail and
dipper for two "comps." If the tickets are
forthcoming, he gets the pail and dipper from his
own home and sells the "comps." to some one on
the way to the theater.
New schemes are always on foot for beating
the ticket box. The tube for shooting tickets
from the balcony to the box ofifice, and the false
bottom ticket box are things of the past. It was
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 205
in a small Iowa town that a new one was discov-
ered. After the rush was over the ticket seller
stepped to the door of the box office and asked
the man on the door for a cigarette. A cigar-
ette box was thrown to him, he stepped back mto
the office, and came out shortly with a lighted
cigarette in his mouth and threw back the box.
Soon after a request was made for another cigar-
ette, and the box was again thrown. The mana-
ger felt like smoking about that time, and as the
box whizzed through the air put up his hand and
caught it. He was somewhat surprised on open-
ing it, for instead of cigarettes he found seven-
teen one dollar tickets.
And then there is the music that is furnished
in the small towns. If the house has no orches-
tra, a worn-out piano will be found that is never
in tune. The manager answers complaints by
saying that every musician who comes along
wants to tune the piano and each one changes the
pitch. The musical director can readily find out
the merit of the orchestra furnished, and if he
can do nothing with it imparts the information
that he will play the show alone if they will fur-
nish the music for the overture and between the
acts. This they will readily agree to do, and
2o6 Driftwood of the Staf^e.
many times by so doing the performance is
The leader of the town brass band will call on
the manager and offer the services of his men to
play outside for free admission to the theater.
There is nothing to be lost on this and he is al-
most always given the contract. The band it-
self is generally composed of from fifteen to
twenty men, but when it comes time to admit
them you will find nearer fifty. Each musician
has a boy to hold his music on such occasions,
and even though they are playing beneath a num-
ber of electric lights, beside each man will be
found a young fellow holding a smoky, foul-
smelling torch, not so much for the purpose of
furnishing light as the means of gaining admit-
tance to the theater At times when there is no
house orchestra the brass band will furnish music
between the acts, and the eflFect in a small house
can be imagined by those who have never
Without a doubt the oddest character met in
the smaller towns is the hotelkeeper, and some of
the choicest of an actor's reminiscences concern
the sayings and doings of the country landlord.
When a company comes along he wants the peo-
ple at his house, and as a rule will do all he can
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 207
for their comfort, for he is generally a good fel-
low. But he is continually doing outlandish
things. Two actors stood in front of one of these
hotels and the landlord stepped out and fired
a charge from a double-barreled shotgun in close
proximity to them. One asked the reason for
shooting and was told it was a notification that
dinner was ready. The other sarcastically in-
quired why he did not shoot off the other barrel,
and received this reply : ''There's a show troupe
in the house and I am keeping that to collect
The hardest thing to contend with in the one-
night stand is the procuring of supernumeraries.
The young men of the town, even those with
theatrical aspirations, and who take part in all
the entertainments given by amateur talent, think
it beneath their dignity to appear as auxiliaries
in the support of any one, no matter how fa-
mous. This makes it necessary to enlist the ser-
vices of an undesirable class, who take part only
for the purpose of seeing the performance and
receiving pay for it. Long before the curtain
rises they are dressed for their parts, and stand
in the wings in the way of everybody. Actors
who wish to make an entrance or exit are forced
to push their way through, as the supernumerary
2o8 Driftwood of the Stage,
feels his importance in the toga of a Roman sen-
ator or the uniform of the king's guard.
No matter how carefully they have been in-
structed in their duties at rehearsals, they never
do it properly during a performance. The
scenes they have spoiled and the tears they have
caused! Many a fine actress has been taken to
her dressing room on the verge of collapse as the
curtain descended on a climax that deserved the
plaudits of the audience and a curtain call, and
through the carelessness of these persons had
been turned into a howl of derision.
Some of these fellows seem to think this is the
time to show that they have a vein of humor in
them, and will play tricks on each other in the
dressing room and on the stage. If they have a
grudge against any of the others this seems to
be the right time to get even. One sad instance
happened in a one-night stand during a perform-
ance of ''Henry V." One of the supernumeraries
had a deep grudge against another supernumer-
ary, and he planned only too well to publicly
humiliate his foe. When the supernumeraries
were both on the stage, and while the star was
declaiming one of his best speeches, one of the
supernumeraries suddenly gave a yell and started
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 209
across the stage on a furious run, pulling at his
wig with both hands as he ran.
The scene was, of course, almost spoiled, for
the audience laughed at the crazy antics of the
supernumerary rather than listened to the read-
ing of the star. An investigation showed that
the supernumerary who bore the grudge against
his colleague had stood close behind his enemy
and in the midst of the scene had leaned over
and whispered shrilly into his ear: "Oh, Bill,
your wig's on fire !" Whereupon, the unfortun-
ate, frightened half to death, had taken to his
heels and run for safety.
The local pride of these small towns is won-
derful. When one of its young men or women
leaves for a theatrical career they keep close
track of them. Those who are successful send
press notices of their advancement to the local
papers who are only too glad to print them.
Those who do not meet with success do not
want their fellow-townsmen to know it, and if
lost sight of inquiries are made of visiting com-
panies as to the missing one.
If one of their number should gain much
prominence in the profession, every theatrical
person who comes along is sure to hear it. At
Tremont, 111., they point with great pride to
2IO Driftwood of the Stage.
the fact that Louis James was born and raised
there, and it is doubtful if any one in the amuse-
ment line ever visited Pontiac, Mich., without
being informed that James A. Bailey was a
native of that place. Youngstown, Ohio, wants
the world to know that Henrietta Crosman
started on her search for fame from that place,
and at Hicksville, Ohio, the Swilly House is
pointed out as the former home of Amelia Bing-
ham. At times the natives will get confidential
and give the names by which they were known
before adopting the stage, and very often relate
stories of their school days. Nine times out of
ten they have them at the foot of the class or
deficient in their studies.
The small town feels honored if a company
elects to open their season with them, and will
always do their best to get them a good house.
If the company rehearses there so nuich the
When Madame Janauschek was at the height
of her American career, it suited her manager
one season to begin the tour at Syracuse, N. Y.
The wily press agent went to the city a week
or two in advance of the opening night and pro-
ceeded to impress upon the newspaper repre-
sentatives of local theatricals the sublime signifi-
Driftwood of the Sta^e, 211
cance of madame's alleged great oath that she
would open at Syracuse or cancel her entire
season. Her manager wanted Chicago, but for
the sake of peace he would compromise on New
York, Boston or Philadelphia. Nothing would
move Janauschek from the rock of her determin-
ation to get the advantage of the well-salted
Naturally, and very properly, the Syracusans
were fired with patriotic pride in the implied
compliment, and the tragedienne got column on
column of laudatory advance work. The result
was a really brilliant opening night. Between
acts an ambitious local newspaper man went on
the stage to have an interview with Brunhilde.
"Madame," he said, with a bow, "Syracuse feels
proud that you elected to begin your tour here,
and my paper would like to tell the public for
you the reason for so honoring us."
"My Gott !" exclaimed the imposing Madame,
"I had to open somewhere!'*
It would never do to overlook the lady found
in every one-night stand who knows all about
theatricals. She never misses a performance,
and boasts of the fact that she never paid to
see a show in her life. She gives theater parties
with billboard tickets, and introduces her guests
212 Driftzvood of the Sta^e.
to the man on the door, whether she knows him
or not. She calls all players by their first names,
and if she has a story about them, is not over
particular as to its truth. A self -constituted
authority on the merits of plays and players, as
well as their salaries, tends to make her much
of a nuisance to those who happen to be seated
Some years ago the theatrical folks who at
that time made Mt. Clemens, Mich., their sum-
mer home, gave a benefit performance for one
of their comrades who had long been an invalid.
Among those who volunteered their services
were Charles J. Ross and Mabel Fenton, who
presented their travesty, which concluded with a
scene from "Virginius." A little later, when the
regular season opened, a well-known actor
visited the town, and presented James Sheridan
Knowles' tragedy of "Virginius." The house
was crowded, and the play well received. Vir-
ginius, after stabbing his daughter to save her
from the polluting touch of Appius Claudius,
stands over her dead body holding aloft the
bloody knife. Appius commands his at-
tendants to seize him. The frenzied father
shrieks in tones of desperation :
Driftzvood of the Sta^e. 213
"If tliey dare
To tempt the desperate weapon that is maddened
With drinking my daughter's blood, why let them.
Thus it rushes in amongst them!
Way there! Way!"
Then dashing at the advancing attendants he
cuts his way through and escapes.
In the audience that night was a lady who
had also attended the performance where Mr.
Ross had given his interpretation of the Roman
father. When the faithful_daughter sank to the
ground, preferring death to dishonor, the lady
began to show signs of disapprobation. The
curtain fell and the star and leading lady re-
sponded to a hearty curtain call. This was where
our lady friend thought proper to impress on
those who were near her how much she knew
of things theatrical, for in loud tones she called
out to a gentleman who sat some distance away :
"Those people should be prosecuted. The
whole thing is a steal from Charley Ross !"
214 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
THE CRUEL HISS.
Daniel H. Harkins, the veteran actor, who
was known and admired by three generations of
players and playgoers, was engaged for the im-
portant role of the King in the production of
"The Last Appeal/' at Wallack's Theater, New
York, April 17, 1902. On the opening night he
appeared at the theater in good health and
spirits. When he endeavored to utter the first
lines of his part, however, his fellow-players
realized that something was wrong. As the per-
formance went on the old player became more
and more nervous, and he seemed utterly to for-
get his lines. The audience was at first inclined
to laugh, and then hisses were heard in different
parts of the house.
It soon became apparent that the actor was
ill and sympathetic words quickly took the place
of smiles among the auditors. But it was too
late ; the hisses had reached the heart of this fine
old actor who had served them faithfully for
over forty years. He managed to get through
the performance, but his efforts in the last act
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 215
were most pitiful. His mind had given way.
He was taken from the theater to his home,
and later was removed to the home of his father
at San Francisco, Cal., where he died December
The audience never paused to consider the
pathetic possibilities of the situation. Enough
for them that the veteran actor acted queer. And
so they laughed.
Sick! Nonsense. Actors are never sick on
the stage. They may be intoxicated or not up
in their parts ; but sick, never !
It may be of some consolation to remember
that equally inconsiderate persons have laughed
and hissed at other admirable actors under cir-
cumstances infinitely distressing. They laughed
at Edmund Kean, one of the greatest tragedians
of the Ejiglish-speaking stage. Mr. Kean was
playing Othello to the lago of his son Charles.
His acting that night was peculiar. He was un-
steady on his legs. The boxes tittered, and the
gallery hissed. But Mr. Kean went on with
the performance. After speaking the words,
"Othello's occupation's gone," he fell into the
arms of his son. The great Kean was dying.
They laughed at Lawrence Barrett. It was
at the Broadway Theater. The Booth and Bar-
2i6 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
rett combination was playing its last engage-
ment in New York. The play was "Richelieu/*
Mr. Barrett appeared as Adrian Du Mauprat.
He acted queer. Unexpectedly the stage mana-
ger came before the curtain and announced that
Mr. Barrett was too ill to continue the perform-
ance, but that another member of the company
would take his place. Edwin Booth's great
partner was carried from the theater and taken
home to die.
They laughed at Castlemary, the grandest
Mephistopheles on the lyric stage. Castlemary
was singing at the Metropolitan Opera House,
New York, under the Abbey, Schoeffel and
Grau management. He was frightfully out of
tune and continually forgot his part. As a mat-
ter of fact, the man was suffering untold phys-
ical pain. When the curtain fell Castlemary
fell too. He died on the stage in the arms of
Jean de Reszke.
They laughed at George S. Knight when he
sought recognition with his beautiful play,
"Baron Rudolph," and that fine actor went to
his grave with a broken heart. "Baron Rudolph"
was originally written by Bronson Howard for
Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Florence, but was not ac-
cepted by them, and was later rewritten for Mr.
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 217
Knight. Its first presentation was at the Acad-
emy of Music, Cleveland, Ohio, and was played
by Mr. Knight for two seasons, when it was
laid aside for "Over the Garden Wall." On
October 24, 1887, it was produced at the Four-
teenth Street Theater, New York, and kept on
the stage for four weeks. It was during this
engagement that it was noticed he was not him-
self, and occasionally forgot his lines. A little
later an attack of paralysis rendered him speech-
less, and he was treated by the best specialists
without avail. A benefit performance was given
at the Bijou Theater, New York, February 27,
1890, and the sum of $2,000 was raised for the
afflicted actor. He died January 14, 1892.
They laughed at "Old Hoss" Hoey when he
began to do strange things on the stage, but he
only laughed with them, and managed to fill out
the season. He was advised to take a rest for
a time, and in a couple of months was laid in
his grave. His last appearance on the stage was
in "A Parlor Match," at the Harlem Opera
House, New York, April 24, 1897. Mr. Hoey
died at New York, June 29, 1897.
Harry Kernell was playing at Tony Pastor's
Theater, New York, where he had always been
a great favorite. At one performance it was
2i8 Driftwood of the Stage.
noticed that his delivery was slow and his stories
consequently fell flat. He would hesitate for
a long time, as if collecting his thoughts. They
did not know of his terrible suffering and hissed
him. Soon after he disappeared from public
view. He died March 13, 1893.
They hissed John McCullough at McVicker's
Theater, Chicago. The bill was ''The Gladia-
tor," with Mr. McCullough as Spartacus. He
had been great in that part, but it only served
to give apprehension. He forgot his lines,
mumbled and groaned and ranted in an alarm-
ing manner. He indulged in so many queer
actions that the audience laughed. He paid no
attention to the smiles and tittering of his audi-
tors, but soon hisses were heard. This was too
much. He had nev^r in his long career been
hissed before, and he stood with his jaws set
glaring defiantly at the section of the house from
which came the objectionable noise. People
thought he had been drinking. Nothing was
ever so pitiful as the sight of the great tragedian
stumbling through his lines, ranting, groaning,
and at times almost dazed. They rang down
Then Mr. McCullough appeared before the
curtain and said : 'Xadies and gentlemen. If
Driftwood of the Sta^e, 2ig
this evening's performance had cost you the
pain and effort it has cost me, you would not
be here to-night." Those were the last words
he ever spoke to an audience — a gentle rebuke
to the people that had admired and applauded
him and finally misjudged him. Friendly hands
led him from the stage and into retirement for-
On Christmas night, 1891, the Fourteenth
Street Theater, New York, was crowded to see
William J. Scanlan in "Mavourneen." In the
first act he who had long been a stage favorite
strode feebly to the center of the stage and
stood with clasped hands and bowed head. When
he spoke the empty sound of his voice struck
terror to the hearts of the actors who stood about
him and loved him. He did not know what to
do or what to say. The last act was chaos.
Some divined the truth, but others, thoughtless
and ribald, believing Mr. Scanlan under the
influence of drink, scoffed and jeered as the
He stumbled to the footlights at the end of
the performance bearing in his hands a floral
harp which some of his admirers had given
him. ''They say," he said to the astonished
audience, ''that I am out of my mind, but that
220 Driffzvood of the Sta^e.
is not true. My head is all right and so is my
heart." He began to cry then. There was
no performance of "Mavourneen" the next
day. Poor Billy Scanlan had bid the stage
good-bye. He died at White Plains, New
York, February i8, 1898.
There have been cases where actors have
been hissed on purely personal reasons. At the
close of the civil war Frank C. Bangs, who
had served in the Confederate army with a
splendid record for bravery, went to the Na-
tional Theater, Washington, D. C, as leading
man. The resident population of the city were
all Southern and endeavored to control the en-
tire house on the occasion of his first appear-
ance. Knowing there would be a demonstra-
tion of some kind, many of the Northern
officials and soldiers then in Washington gained
entrance. The gallery gods were all South-
erners to the core. When Mr. Bangs came on
the stage the Northerners started to hiss. But
the thunders of applause from all over the house
and the rebel yell soon drowned the hisses, and
he was allowed to proceed.
A band of students once hissed Sarah Bern-
hardt in her own theater at Paris. The divine
Sarah was astounded, and was curious to know
George W. Wii^son
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 221
the reason, whereupon the students replied that
they had only admiration for her acting, but that
not even she could meddle with the genius of
Racine. She was playing in a revival of "An-
dromaque." The play as performed was not
as written by the author, and the students, as
worshipers of the French literary genius,
would not, they said, permit anyone to insult
the memory of the great Racine by trying to
modernize his plays.
On several occasions there have been or-
ganized efforts on the part of Irish societies
to interfere with performances that presented
racial caricatures. "A Hot Old Time" com-
pany was hissed and hooted at when playing
Springfield, Mass. At Philadelphia, the par-
ticipants in the wake scene in ''The Shaugh-
raun" were assailed with missiles, and at the
same city a performance of ''McFadden's Row
of Flats" ended in a riot, in which many were
injured. The riot was similar to one that
occurred to the same company while playing
at the Star Theater, New York, the week pre-
vious, when two hundred Irishmen, whose
feelings had been outraged by the performance,
rose in their seats in the theater at a signal and
pelted the performers with stale eggs, decayed
222 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
vegetables and fruit. The audience of over
two thousand v^as thrown into an uproar and
the actors were driven from the stage. Bricks
were thrown upon the stage, eggs struck per-
formers and scenery; torpedoes were hurled
upon the stage, which struck with such force
that they exploded like so many bombs. The
stage was littered and the actors and actresses
sought refuge in every corner.
Then there quickly followed a scene of wild
disorder and riot which was feared would ter-
minate fatally to some one. The air seemed
filled with missiles, and the noise of bursting
torpedoes seemed like a miniature battle. The
confusion was intense, and the cries of women
and children could be heard above the din of
the rioters' oaths. Immediately there was a
rush for the exits, and in the excitement women
and children were trampled upon. None were
seriously injured, however. In the uproar a
policeman who was trying to preserve order
discovered and stamped out a burning rag in
one of the aisles.
In June, 1902, Maclyn Ar buckle while play-
ing at Powers' Theater, Chicago, in "The Lady
of Lyons," was greeted with a fierce storm of
indignation created by his lines on woman in
Driftzvood of the Sta^e. 223
the fifth act. In the play Mr. Arbuckle had to
say: "Yes, a miracle — in other words, a con-
stant woman." Storms of hisses greeted this
denunciation of the sex, and for five minutes
the play was interrupted by continued hissing.
The house was filled with fashionable women,
and they could not seem to realize that they
were witnessing a play. They took the jibe to
heart. A few of the women were not content
with hissing and gave vent to cries of "Shame !''
and "Wretch!" and various other words of
condemnation. When Mr. Arbuckle attempted
to go on w^ith his speech on the frailties of
woman he was interrupted again at every line.
In the early seventies Archie Hughes be-
gan an engagement at the Theater Comique,
New York. Mr. Hughes, who was a noted
minstrel and a great favorite in Brooklyn, where
he had for years been connected with Hooley's
Minstrels, would occasionally be called upon to
play at New York, and was always sure of a
On this occasion he had hardly commenced
his specialty when hisses began to come from
all parts of the house. This was a puzzle to
everybody, as it was not known that Archie had
an enemy in the world. Suspicion pointed to
224 Driftwood of the Stage.
a well-known vaudeville team at that time at
the height of their career. Both denied being
implicated in the affair, but subsequent investi-
gation proved the senior member of the team
the sole instigator of the insult. The saying
that revenge is sweet was shown in this case.
It was not long after that this team was en-
gaged for the Olympic Theater, at Brooklyn.
During the day that they were to appear several
large purchases of tickets gave a hint that
there would be something doing that night, and
when a prominent city official purchased one
hundred tickets to give a theater party to a
social club to which Mr. Hughes belonged, they
were sure of it. The team had a fine specialty,
one of the most successful acts ever on the
stage, the music of which was being whistled
and sung by everybody. This made no dif-
ference to the crowded house that received them
only to return the insult that had been offered
to their favorite and fellow-townsman. When
the orchestra commenced to play the introduc-
tory music to their act the noise and hisses
began. They were not allowed to proceed.
The senior member of the team stepped to the
footlights to say something to the audience but
was hooted down. The junior member then
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 22^
stepped forward and was loudly cheered, as
was a small colored boy used in the act who
had been led to the front by both of the per-
formers. Finding it would be impossible to
proceed the team withdrew.
In some of the London playhouses they have
a way distinctively their own in showing their
disapprobation of a play or player that does not
suit their fancy. Certain sections of the house
observe a dignified silence, and the galleries
indulge in what some call an automatic outcry,
but can better be described as a ''boo."
Upon the occasion of William Gillette's first
performance in "Sherlock Holmes" at the
Lyceum Theater, London, this clever actor was
not received with the proper courtesy that was
due him. When the curtain finally fell there
were a great many calls for Mr. Gillette's ap-
pearance. As he stepped forward quite a large
number of the upstairs spectators with that deli-
cate sense of humor began to "boo." Mr. Gil-
lette was not in the least disconcerted. He
stood there with a slight smile flickering about
his thin lips, and when he had a chance to be
heard, he said: "Of course, if you keep this
up, you'll win!"
226 Driftwood of the Stage.
STORY OF JOHN WILKES BOOTH.
John Wilkes Booth was the third son of
Junius Brutus Booth, known as a tragedian of
very great ability in his life, and was born on
a farm near Baltimore, Md., in 1838; he was
consequently at the time of his death only
twenty-seven years of age.
The children of actors very often embrace
their parent's vocation. John Wilkes was no
exception to this rule, and at the age of seven-
teen resolved to enroll himself among the mem-
bers of the dramatic profession. Opportunity
was not wanting, and he made his first bow to
an audience at the St. Charles Theater, Balti-
more, Md., as Richmond, in "Richard III." In
August, 1857, he joined the company at the
Arch Street Theater, Philadelphia, making his
first appearance there as Second Mask in "The
Belle's Stratagem" under the name of John
Wilkes. He remained there during the season.
Having gained some confidence he resolved on
a starring tour, and in 1861 made engagements
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 227
at the different theaters. He visited all the prin-
cipal cities and his success was very great. He
made his first appearance in New York as a star
at Wallack's Theater, Broadway and Broome
Street, March 31, 1862. Retired from the stage
in 1863 and speculated in oil in the oil regions
of Pennsylvania. On November 25, 1864, he
appeared with his two brothers, Edwin and
Junius Brutus, in "J^^i^s Caesar" at the Win-
ter Garden, New York, for the benefit of the
Shakespeare Monument Fund, John Wilkes act-
ing Marc Antony. This occasion and his one
week's engagement at Wallack's Theater were
his only appearances in New York. His last
appearance on any stage was at Ford's Theater,
Washington, D. C, as Pescara, in "The Apos-
tate," for the benefit of John McCullough,
March 18, 1865, but a short time before the
unfortunate tragedy that plunged the nation into
grief. The act of a misguided young man who
atoned for it by a violent death preceded by the
most agonizing tortures, cut off in the bloom
On the night of April 14, 1865, an invitation
was extended to President Lincoln and suite to
attend Ford's Theater, Washington, D. C, to
witness a performance of "Our American
228 Driftwood of the Stage.
Cousin." The party consisted of the President,
Mrs. Lincoln, Major Rathbone and Miss Harris.
It was intended that General Grant was to be one
of the party but he was compelled to leave the
city on important business. The recent victories
had greatly increased the popularity of the ad-
ministration, and the most enthusiastic cheers
greeted the President from one of the most bril-
liant audiences that had assembled that season.
All the elite and beauty of the federal city were
The presidential box was made on this occa-
sion from two, the partitions being removed, and
it was on a level with the dress circle, about
twelve feet above the stage. There were two en-
trances, the door nearest the wall was closed and
locked, the other being open and left unclosed af-
ter the visitors had entered. The interior was
carpeted in crimson, the walls papered with the
same color, and furnished with a sofa, three arm
chairs and a rocking chair of a similar hue. The
President occupied the rocking chair, which was
placed in the angle of the box nearest the audi-
ence, where screened from observation he had
the best view of what was passing on the stage.
Mrs. Lincoln had the seat next to him.
Booth entered the theater just as the third act
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 229
had commenced. He ascended to the dress cir-
cle and gazed for a few moments on the audience
and the stage. He then slowly walked to the
box and asked for admission. The servant in
attendance informed him it was the President's
box and no one was allowed to enter. He then
advanced to the front of the box, and suddenly
the sharp crack of a pistol was heard. The
President's head fell on his shoulder; the ball
was in his brain.
Dropping his pistol he drew a dirk,* and
wounded Major Rathbone in the arm. Then
leaping upon the velvet covered balustrade in the
front of the box he made a spring, his spur
caught in the flag ornamenting the front, and
his leg was broken. Heedless of the pain, he
fell upon the stage. Quickly regaining his feet
he stood there for a moment and shouting with
an uplifted dagger in his hand, "Sic Semper
Tyrannis!" fled to the rear of the theater.
Colonel Stewart, who sat near the orchestra,
climbed after him, but Booth eluded his grasp.
Another who attempted to pursue was thrust
aside with a blow. He gained the back door,
mounted the horse that was awaiting him, and
for a time escaped.
A dead stillness reigned for a few seconds,
230 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
This pause was succeeded by the most indescrib-
able noise and confusion. Laura Keene, the star
of the evening, addressed the audience from the
footlights begging them to keep their seats.
Order was restored and Miss Keene then pro-
ceeded to the President's box and took the head
of the dying statesman in her lap. The night
was the most awful that Washington ever saw.
The news soon circulated from house to house,
and inquiries as to the safety of General Grant,
Secretary Seward, and other members of the
cabinet, fell from a thousand lips. The whole
city was moved as one man and every counten-
ance was blanched with rage and fear. The
fourteenth of April, 1865, was now a memorable
day in history, and the most melancholy in the
annals of the country.
The wounded man was immediately attended
by the best medical skill, who had him conveyed
to a private residence opposite the theater, where
he continued to grow weaker and weaker, until
twenty-two minutes after seven o'clock on Sat-
urday morning, April 15, when his eyes closed
The theaters and all other places of amuse-
ment everywhere that the painful intelligence
reached, were closed on the 15th, and no per-
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 231
formance given at any of them. Some houses
did not open until after the funeral of the chief
magistrate. Edwin Booth at the time was acting
at the Boston Theater. When the news of his
brother's terrible deed reached him he retired
from the stage and buried himself in obscurity.
He reappeared January 3, 1866, at the Winter
Garden, New York, as Hamlet.
The remains of the President were entombed
with great magnificence, each city extending its
mournful hospitality as the funeral cortege
passed through them on the way to the final rest-
ing place at Springfield, 111.
On leaving the theater Booth was joined by
David E. Harold, and together they dashed
across Capitol Hill towards the eastern branch of
the Potomac, which they crossed at Uniontown.
They then proceeded on their journey at a break-
neck pace, neither whip nor spur was wanting;
it was a race for life or death, and they felt it.
About sunrise on Saturday morning they had
reached Bryantown. Booth's leg was now very
painful, but they rode on until they reached the
house of Dr. Samuel A. Mudd. Harold assisted
his companion to the house of the doctor, who
on making an examination of the wounded limb
found the outward bone was broken about two
232 Drifizvood of the Sta^e.
inches above the instep. There was some diffi-
culty in finding splints and a crutch, but some
old boxes were broken up and the necessary
articles made. Breakfast was served and the
two men departed.
By night they had reached one of the swamps
so well-known in St. Mary's County. Three
days were passed in the swamp. Harold would
go out at nightfall to beg food, and on one oc-
casion stole a blanket and tin cup; these with
the exception of a little money constituted their
An immense reward was offered by the gov-
ernment for their capture. Ten thousand caval-
rymen had been scouring the country, but as yet,
fruitlessly. All Booth's precautions had been
so well taken that not a step could be traced.
The two men continued their travels and took
refuge in a barn near Bowling Green, where in
the darkness of the night on Tuesday, April 26,
they were discovered armed to the teeth and
bidding defiance to. the men sent to capture them.
They were ordered to deliver up their arms and
come out or the barn would be fired. The al-
ternative was fearful. If they remained in the
barn a dreadful death by fire awaited them, if
they came out the scaffold and halter. Harold
Driftzvood of the Sta^e. 233
came to the door and surrendered to the officers
and was passed to the rear.
Booth was now alone and the pursuers see-
ing no other way of driving him out, fire was
set to the barn. In a few seconds the flames
danced around every part and showed Booth
supporting himself against the side. He had
dropped his crutch and could not recover it. Col-
lecting all his strength he made for the door car-
bine in hand, but before he reached it a bullet
from the weapon of Sergeant Boston Corbett
entered his neck. He tottered and fell headlong
to the floor. He was taken out and laid on
the grass. The angel of death drew near. As
the dawn approached his eyes rolled and a livid
paleness overspread the face; with a sudden
check and gurgle he threw his head back, and
the spirit had fled forever.
The corpse was sewed up in a saddle blanket
and conveyed by wagon to Belle Plain, which
was reached in the afternoon, thence by steamer
to Washington. On the morning of April 28
Booth's body was lifted on to the deck of the
monitor Montauk. It was solemnly laid on a
carpenter's bench back of the turret. An autopsy
was held next dav. The bodv was then taken
234 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
to the Washington Penitentiary and buried be-
neath the stone floor.
The government in the meantime had not been
idle. The nation had recovered from its great
shock, and after the last sad duties had been
paid to the dead President, resolved to ascertain
and punish the conspirators. Everybody that
had been seen in Booth's company during the
day were put under arrest on suspicion of being
accessories to the crime. This, however, was
a mere formality, which in the general excite-
ment could not be overlooked. Of course, there
was little difficulty about obtaining immediate
release, for it was evident that not one of his
companions had the remotest idea of the
thoughts that had been surging through Booth's
Lewis Payne, Mrs. Mary E. Surratt, George
A. Atzerodt, Michael O'Laughlin, David E.
Harold, Dr. Samuel A. Mudd and Edward
Spangler were arrested and charged with con-
spiracy. They were also accused of intent to
kill Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, and
others who were named in the charges. A mili-
tary commission was appointed for their trial.
In accordance with the findings of the commis-
sion, which' the President approved, Harold,
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 235
Payne, Atzerodt and Mrs. Surratt were sen-
tenced to death and executed on July 7, 1865.
Dr. Mudd and 0''Laughlin were sentenced
to life imprisonment, and Spangler to six years
in the Albany Penitentiary.
On the 15th day of February, 1869, Edwin
Booth received an order from President An-
drew Johnson giving him the custody of his
brother's body. The undertaker in charge pro-
ceeded to the penitentiary and found that John
Wilkes was buried in a trench that also held
the bodies of Captain Wirz, Mrs. Surratt,
Payne, Harold and Atzerodt. Preparations were
at once commenced for the disinterment of the
remains. There were present the undertakers,
a military officer, a representative of the press
and a file of soldiers. The box in which the re-
mains were interred was much decayed, but the
body which was wrapped in two or three gray
blankets was in a tolerable state of preservation.
The box was then borne by four soldier? to a
wagon in waiting, and that night encased in
another pine box was taken by car to Balti-
more. Joseph Booth, a brother, viewed the body
and identified it beyond doubt. Later the re-
mains were placed in their final resting place in
the family burial plot in Greenmount Cemetery,
236 Driftzvood of the Sta^e,
THE LAST APPEARANCE.
It may not be generally known that the great
French tragedienne, Rachael, was forced by ill-
ness to bring her dramatic career to a close and
make her last appearance on the stage while
on a visit to this country. This renowned actress
made her debut at the Gymnaise Theater, Paris,
in May, 1837, in a play called "La Vendeene,''
in which she acted a poor peasant girl who saves
the life of her father by pleading with the Em-
press Josephine. Rachael made her first ap-
pearance in America at New York, September
3, 1855, as Camille, in Corneille's tragedy ''Les
Horaces." While in Philadelphia she caught a
bad cold, collapsed, and on the advice of her
physician was sent to Charleston, S. C, that she
might escape the rigors of a northern winter.
It was in the latter city on December 17, 1855,
that she made her last appearance on any stage
as Adrienne Lecouvreur. At the time she was
dying by inches of consumption. Next she went
to Havana, and then back to France, never more
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 237
to act. Rachael lingered on until January 3,
1858, when she passed from earth.
The last appearance of Frank Mayo on the
stage was at the Broadway Theater, Denver,
Col., June 7, 1896, as Pudd'nhead Wilson in the
play of that name, which was originally pro-
duced by him at the Herald Square Theater,
New York, April 15, 1895. Mr. Mayo in his
time played many parts, but those best remem-
bered are Davy Crockett and Pudd'nhead Wil-
son. Davy Crockett was called a "backwoods
idyl." It was a pure love story, told in a simple,
dramatic way. The character of Davy Crockett,
the central figure, was beautifully and artistically
drawn, a strong, brave young hunter from the
far West, bold, but unassuming; unable to read
or write ; utterly unconscious of his own physical
beauty and of his own heroism. There is no
doubt that Davy Crockett owed much of its suc-
cess to Mr. Mayo's performance of this back-
woods hero. He first played this character at
Rochester, N. Y., in 1873, producing it at
Niblo's Garden, New York, March 9, 1874.
Mr. Mayo made his first appearance on the
stage at the American Theater, San Francisco,
CaL, July 19, 1856, as a waiter in ^'Raising the
Wind." He played an engagement at Boston in
238 Driftwood of the Sta^c.
1865, and a little later played star engagements
throughout the country. His first appearance
in New York was at the Grand Opera House,
March 31, 1869, when he was specially engaged
for the part of Ferdinand in a production of
'The Tempest/' Mr. Mayo died on a rail-
way train, June 8, 1896.
The last appearance on the stage of James A.
Heme was at the Grand Opera House, Chicago,
in the spring of 1901, as Captain Dan Marble,
in the play "Sag Harbor," of which he was the
author. Mr. Heme's theatrical career was a
notable one of forty-two years' duration. His
first appearance was at the Adelphi Theater,
Troy, N. Y., in April, 1859, as George Shelby,
in "Uncle Tom's Cabin," and he was suc-
cessively leading man and star, manager and
dramatist. In addition, he was a thoroughly
capable stage manager. His first play was
"Hearts of Oak," produced at Chicago in 1878.
Next came "The Minute Man," and later
"Drifting Apart" and "Margaret Fleming." His
biggest success was "Shore Acres," first played
at Chicago in 1892. "Sag Harbor" was first
brought out at Boston, October 24, 1899. The
action of the play was placed at Sag Harbor,
a village on Long Island, which in the old days
Driftzvood of the Sta^e. 239
was a prosperous whaling port. With remark-
able fidelity to nature he transferred to the
theater the quaint characters of the village, and
throughout the play was notable for the rich
quality of its humor. Captain Marble, as pre-
sented by Mr. Heme, was one of those lovable
characters of which his Nathaniel Berry in
"Shore Acres," was so delightful a type. Mr.
Heme died at New York, June 2, 1901.
Mrs. John Drew, who was regarded as one
of the most versatile actresses ever seen on the
American stage, played her last engagement at
the Newark Theater, Newark, N. J., January
9, 1897, as the Duchess of Rulford, in "The
Sporting Duchess." Her last appearance on any
stage was at the benefit given to Edwin F.
Knowles at the Montauk Theater, Brooklyn, N.
Y., May 13, 1897, when she acted in a little
sketch entitled "The First Jury of Women.*"
Her first important speaking character was Agib
in "Timour, the Tartar," at the Liverpool Thea-
ter, when but a child.
Her first appearance in America took place
at the Walnut Street Theater, Philadelphia, as
the Duke of York to the elder Booth's Richard
ni. First appeared in New York at the Bowery
Theater, March 3, 1828. She went to the Arch
240 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
Street Theater in Philadelphia in February,
1853, and assumed the management of this thea-
ter August 31, 1 86 1, and thereafter until her
tours as a special attraction in star combina-
tions, her name was identified with the house.
She was perfectly at home in tragedy or comedy,
but perhaps Lady Teazle and Mrs. Malaprop
are the two best remembered creations of this
lady. As Mrs. Malaprop she made her ludicrous
verbal blunders with the most sublime uncon-
sciousness, and embodying the part as she alone
could do it. When the Jefferson-Florence com-
bination was formed in 1889, Mrs. Drew was
engaged and was the next player of interest and
importance in the cast. She died at Larchmont,
N. Y., August 31, 1897.
George L. Fox, most famous as a panto-
mimist, made his last appearance on the stage
at Booth's Theater, New York, November 2y,
1875, as Humpty Dumpty, a part he had played
over 1,200 times. Mr. Fox made his first ap-
pearance at the Tremont Theater, Boston, in
1830, when but five years of age, and after
nearly half a century before the footlights, shat-
tered in health and broken in mind, he disap-
peared from the public view. He died at Cam-
bridge, Mass., October 24, 1877.
Driftwood of the Stag^e, 241
Charles R. Thorne, Jr., made his last appear-
ance on the stage at Booth's Theater, New York,
January 9, 1883. Mr. Thorne appeared in an
elaborate revival of "The Corsican Brothers,"
in the dual role of Louis and Fabian. After
the second performance he was taken ill and
unable to leave his bed, and the theater was
closed. The first part Mr. Thorne played was
that of George Shelby, in "Uncle Tom's Cabin,"
in 1854. He died at New York, March 10,
Fanny Davenport made her last appearance
on the stage at the Grand Opera House, Chi-
cago, March 22^, 1898, as Cleopatra. Miss Da-
venport's first appearance on the stage was at
the Howard Athenaeum, Boston, as the Child
in "Metamora." Her first appearance in New
York was at Niblo's Garden, February 14, 1862,
as King Charles 11., in "Faint Heart Never
Won Fair Lady," her father as Ruy Gomez, and
her mother as the Duchess of Terranueva. Her
first appearance in Augustin Daly's company was
at the Fifth Avenue Theater, New York, Sep-
tember 29, 1869, as Lady Gay Spanker, in
"London Assurance." She produced Sardou's
play of "Fedora" in 1883; "La Tosca" in 1888;
"Cleopatra" in 1890, and "Gismonda" in 1894.
242 Driftwood of the Stage.
Miss Davenport died at Duxbury, Mass., Sep-
tember 26, 1898.
William J. Florence made his last appearance
on the stage at the Arch Street Theater, Phila-
delphia, November 14, 1891, playing the part
of Zekiel Homespun in "The Heir at Law."
Mr. Florence made his professional debut at the
Richmond Hill Theater, New York, December
6, 1849, as Peter, in "The Stranger." On Oc-
tober 15, 1889, Mr. Florence and Joseph Jeffer-
son made their joint appearance at the Star
Theater, New York, in "The Rivals," Mr. Jef-
ferson in the part of Bob Acres and Mr.
Florence as Sir Lucius O'Trigger. Mrs. John
Drew was engaged for the part of Mrs. Mala-
prop. Mr. Florence died at Philadelphia, No-
vember 18, 1 89 1.
The last appearance on the stage of Joseph
Haworth took place at the Victoria Theater,
New York, May 2, 1903, as Prince Dimitri in
"Resurrection." For years Mr. Haworth was
accounted one of the very best actors on the
American stage. He was assuredly one of the
most studious and intellectual members of the
dramatic profession in this country, and through
,his whole career his influence was always toward
the betterment of stage art. He was a man of
Driftwood of the Stage. 243
unusually broad mental attainments, a master
of the mechanics of acting, and in temperament
a thorough artist. When he was eighteen years
old Mr. Haworth encountered the chance that
opened to him a career on the stage. He was
permitted to recite "Shamus O'Brien" at a bene-
fit performance. Charlotte Crampton was at-
tracted by his personality and earnestness, and
intrusted to him the role of Buckingham in a
performance that she was about to give of
"Richard III." This performance took place at
the Academy of Music, Cleveland, Ohio, in
1873, and was his first professional appearance.
Mr. Haworth has been in the support of many
noted stars. He played Romeo to Mary Ander-
son's Juliet, and was with John McCullough
when that gentleman's breakdown occurred.
When Mr. McCullough was stricken he fell into
Mr. Haworth's arms, and was borne by him
from the stage. He was also at various times
leading man for Clara Morris, Margaret Mather
and Julia Marlowe. Mr. Haworth was found
dead in bed at a hotel at Willoughby, Ohio,
August 28, 1903.
Margaret Mather made her last appearance on
the stage at the Burlew Opera House, Charles-
ton, W. Va., April 7, 1898, as Imogen in
244 Driftwood of the Sta^c.
"Cymbeline." Miss Mather made her stellar
debut at McVicker's Theater, Chicago, August
28, 1882, as Juliet. Her first appearance at New
York was in the same character, and took place
at the Union Square Theater, October 13, 1885.
Miss Mather died at Charleston, W. Va., April
7, 1898, shortly after she had finished her per-
formance. They brought her to Detroit, Mich.,
to be buried beside her mother. Arrayed in the
robes she had so often worn as Juliet, she was
laid in state, and her face was gazed upon by
thousands. It was on an Easter Sunday that
she was laid in her grave.
Sol Smith Russell made his last appearance
on the stage at the Grand Opera House, Chi-
cago, December 18, 1899. *'The Hon. 'John
Grigsby" was the play, and during its perform-
ance Mr. Russell broke down, and after which
he was never able to appear again. His first
appearance on the stage was at the Defiance
Theater, Cairo, 111., in 1862, where he sang be-
tween the acts and played the drum in the or-
chestra. The first part he acted was a negro
girl in "The Hidden Hand."
Later he joined the Berger Family of bell
ringers, and made a tour eastward with them.
His comedy work gained such notice that he
Driftwood of the Staf^c. 245
branched out for himself as a humorous lec-
turer. His success here brought him an engage-
ment, in 1867, with the stock company at the
Chestnut Street Theater, Philadelphia, under
Colonel William E. Sinn's management. More
tours in monologue followed, and then his first
New York engagement, at Lina Edwin's Thea-
ter, in 1 87 1. Augustin Daly engaged him in
1874, and on August 24 of that year he made
his debut with the Daly Stock Company at the
Fifth Avenue Theater as Mr. Peabody in "What
Could She Do ? or Jealousy." He left the com-
pany the next season, but rejoined it in 1876.
While under Mr. Daly's management he played
many comedy roles with success.
In 1880 Mr. Russell made his debut as a
star, appearing in *' Edge wood Folks," a comedy
written especially to suit him. Though his own
work was admirable and his company excellent,
the first season's tour was a failure pecuniarily.
The following season the tide turned, and for
the next four years Mr. Russell toured pros-
perously in ''Edgewood Folks," and became
firmly established as a star. For one season
thereafter he was the comedian at the Boston
Museum. Then he resumed starring, playing
in three seasons "Felix McKusick" and "Be-
246 Driftzuood of the Sta^e.
witched." Then came ''A Poor Relation" in
1889-1890; "The Tale of a Coat," produced
at Daly's Theater in 1890, and later, "Peaceful
Valley," "April Weather," a revival of "The
Heir at Law," and "A Bachelor's Romance."
At the death of Mr. Russell the stage lost one
of its quaintest and most lovable characters. His
odd, unctuous performances will never be for-
gotten by those who saw him. His wealth of
dry humor was equaled by his supply of ten-
derness and pathos. Throughout the west and
south Mr. Russell enjoyed his greatest popu-
larity, and there no actor held a warmer place
in the affections of the public. Mr. Russell died
at Washington, D. C, April 28, 1902.
Stuart Robson's last appearance on the stage
was at the Burtis Opera House, Auburn, N. Y.,
April 25, 1903, as the Dromio of Syracuse, in
"A Comedy of Errors." Few actors had a
more interesting career or were better and more
favorably known to the theater-going public than
Stuart Robson. Born at Annapolis, Md., March
4, 1836, he at an early age manifested an apti-
tude for the stage, and when a mere youth, in
company with Edwin Booth and John Sleeper
Clarke, who later married a sister of Mr. Booth,
he took part in amateur productions at Balti-
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 247
more, the performances often being held in a
barn or some other place equally devoid of
His first professional appearance was on the
stage of the Baltimore Museum, January 5,
1852, since which time he had been actively
identified with the theatrical profession. One of
his earliest successes was as Captain Crosstree
in a burlesque entitled ^'Black-Eyed Susan," in
1870. For several years prior to forming a
partnership with William H. Crane, he was
connected with stock companies, playing in
various parts of the country. His first work
with Mr. Crane was in "Our Boarding House,"
by Leonard Grover. "The Henrietta," Bronson
Howard's famous work, was another monu-
mental example of the ability of these two men,
and for his clever work in that production Mr.
Robson will probably be best remembered always
as Bertie, the Lamb.
One of the notable achievements of his long
career was the magnificent revival of "A
Comedy of Errors/' in which both he and Mr.
Crane were eminently successful. "The Merry
Wives of Windsor" also formed another link in
the chain of successes which attended the efforts
of these two comedians. Mr. Robson died at
New York, April 29, 1903.
248 Driftwood of the Stage.
Where are those good old minstrel troupes
that used to fill our opera houses with music,
mirth and song? Where have those good old
singers gone, with their voices sweet and pure,
and whose songs touched the hearts of the
audience? Where are those two good old end
men, with their snow-white vests and mouth
that stretched from ear to ear, whose songs and
comic ditties brought the house down with a
Minstrelsy at one time was our most popular
style of stage entertainment, and almost every
city of importance had its permanent minstrel
halls, which were generally filled to their ca-
pacity. At one time in New York there were
Hooley and Campbell's Minstrels on the Bowery,
and Bryant's, White, Cotton and Sharpley's, the
San Francisco and Kelly and Leon's Minstrels,
all had permanent homes on Broadway within
a few blocks of one another. Hooley's Minstrels
had a permanent organization in Brooklyn for
Driftwood of the Stag^e. 249
The style of minstrel entertainment has
changed somewhat from the old-time minstrel
show. It used to be that when the curtain rose
you would see from fifteen to twenty men seated
in a semi-circle on the stage, with two end men,
and all in evening dress. Sweet singing and
clean humor was given for about forty minutes,
and then for the olio, which consisted of a fe-
male impersonator, clog or jig dancing, a sketch,
a banjo player, a quartette of singers, or per-
haps of brass, a song and dance team, and close
the performance with a burlesque opera or a
walk-around. No elevated stage, no spectacu-
lar equipment, no Shakespearean first part, no
bicycle riders, no acrobats or horizontal bars.
The introduction of the negro as a stage per-
son was caused by the demand for a novelty in
this wise, and the individual acts of T. D. Rice
and others had become famous through the op-
portunities offered them for a hearing while the
stage was being prepared for a change. But
there had never been a double act produced in
this manner, nor had there been offered any per-
formance by more than one person with a coun-
terfeit presentment of burnt cork. Dan Emmett
had appeared as a colored fiddler, Billy Whit-
lock as a negro ban joist, and Frank Brower had
250 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
rattled the bones in black face. Dick Pelham,
another negro impersonator, was famous for
juggling the tambourine to music.
American minstrelsy was born at 37 Catherine
Street, New York. The spot is sacred ground
to a few veterans of the profession, who have
made names for themselves in the strictly legiti-
mate line of dramatic art, for the best known
theatrical boarding house of the forties was lo-
The place was kept by Mrs. Elizabeth Brooks,
who, according to tradition, was a mother to
those who sought a home at her house. There
was no theater above Canal Street then, and
the professional colony was so small that every
actor, singer, or person connected with a theater
or place of amusement was on speaking terms
with the others.
Dan Emmett was a popular member of Mrs.
Brooks' household. One day in 1842 Billy
Whitlock, another boarder, was aiding him to
rehearse a new negro melody, Emmett playing
his fiddle and Whitlock accompanying him on
the banjo. Brower dropped in on his way to
the theater and joined them with the bones,
Pelham calling later with his tambourine. For
the first time the quartette played together, and
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 251
the effect was so striking and musical that some
one who heard the rehearsal suggested that the
four men play in public as a quartette.
The Virginia Minstrels, now indelibly re-
corded in the history of the American stage, was
formed that day. It was arranged that the four
men were to test the departure before the public
of New York, but an unsurmountable obstacle
was encountered. No manager could be found
who would give the new organization an oppor-
tunity to appear on the regular boards.
The great resort for the rank and file of the
profession in the fifth decade of the century was
a hotel kept at 36 Bowery, by Jonas Bartlett.
There the circus performers lived during their
visits to New York to appear in the single ring
arenas of the circuses of that time. Much sym-
pathy was extended to the Virginia Minstrels,
and Uncle Jonas, as he was called, offered the
use of his dining-room to the newly formed ag-
gregation. A stage was improvised in the
billiard room, and the first performance created
a sensation. The ready wit of the minstrels and
their topical conversation caught the town, and
in a few days they were installed for a season
in old Library Hall at that city.
So, from the four men who accidentally met
252 Driftzvood of the Stage.
in Mrs. Brooks' boarding house in 1842, in
primitive fashion, thousands have since enter-
tained the people of every land and race and
created melodies which have brought sweet
memories of childhood to generations of men.
While it had its origin and introduction with
the rough furniture of a Bowery billiard hall
for a stage setting, the quaint music of the sons
of Ham is now produced by a complete operatic
orchestra and with a scenic picture which costs
thousands of dollars for the opening part.
The greatest minstrel organization ever
known was the San Francisco Minstrels. Every
old performer and theatergoer will grow remin-
iscent at the mention of Birch, Wambold, Ber-
nard and Backus. It was indeed a rare com-
bination. There seemed to be a bond of
sympathy between those men, and they worked
together so harmoniously on the stage that the
people in the audience were affected by it. They
used to take their audiences into their confidence
and make it a sort of family circle affair, and
they would spring impromptu gags on one an-
other about things that had happened during
the day. Birch and Backus were the end men.
Backus had a large mouth and depended a great
deal on boisterous methods, while Birch, who
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 253
exhibited a row of ivories in black face, talked
to the interlocutor in a quiet, colloquial way.
Bernard was the interlocutor, and he was one
of the few middle men that have been an abso-
lute attraction in themselves. Wambold was
the greatest tenor that ever put on burnt cork.
Had his voice received the proper cultivation
he would have been one of the greatest singers
that ever lived. Bernard retired from the busi-
ness before the San Francisco Minstrels became
a thing of the past. Backus and Wambold died
well ofif, while poor old Birch died in poverty.
They made the world happier and brighter by
their presence, and when they died they left no
Kelly and Leon's Minstrels was also a popu-
lar organization in days gone by. They took
the building at 720 Broadway, New York,
which had been formerly known as Hope
Chapel, and converted it into a cosy minstrel hall.
The house was opened October i, 1866. There
were seventeen in the first part. Frank Moran
was on the bone end, Johnny Allen, tambourine,
and Edwin Kelly, interlocutor. Delehanty and
Hengler made their first New York appearance
at this house, August 12, 1867.
On December 11, 1867, a professional mati-
254 Driftwood of the Stage.
nee was given at the Fifth Avenue Opera House,
then at Broadv^ay and Twenty-fourth Street,
New York, which was largely attended. Sam
Sharpley, who was then conducting a minstrel
hall at 514 Broadway, and Mr. Leon got into
an argument in front of the house after the per-
formance, Sharpley claiming that Delehanty and
Hengler, who were billed to appear at Kelly and
Leon's, were under contract to him. Hot words
passed and blows were struck. Friends of both
parties interfered, and a few minutes later Tom
Sharpe, a brother of Sam Sharpley, lay dead
on the sidewalk, from shots fired by Edwin
Kelly, and Sam Sharpley had shot Kelly in the
head, severely wounding him. The house was
then closed and remained so until December 17.
Mr. Kelly was later placed on trial for murder
Both Kelly and Leon made their reappearance
the following year, but business began to de-
cline and they soon after gave up the house.
Several others tried to keep the place open but
without success. On November 25, 1872, Kelly
and Leon again took possession, and three days
later the building was destroyed by fire. The
theater was not rebuilt, and Kelly and Leon's
Minstrels soon after passed into history.
Driftwood of the Stage. 255
There are striking comparisons between the
present and past methods of minstrel entertain-
ment. Public taste in any country is liable to
change, but in the United States it is especially
capricious, and in no activity of life, perhaps
is this fact more noticeable than on the stage.
The forms of entertainment that amused the
public and paid the managers years ago are
largely obsolete to-day. To the cultured mind
the bills now no doubt read better, and the per-
formances are more refined, but for real, unadul-
terated fun the past and the present in this rela-
tion are not to be compared. Nowadays who
ever hears of a song and dance team? When
the old song and dance performers died, and
few of them are on this side of the final curtain,
their line of business like that of the minstrel
generally, seemed to go out of date.
Mclntyre and Heath of the old ones are really
about the only team which started in as black
face song and dance men who maintained their
reputation and continued popular. For thirty
years they retained their popularity because they
dropped the song and dance form of perform-
ance and appeared in short sketches, which gave
their original fun-making propensities a more
attractive foundation. Tom Lewis and Sam J.
256 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
Ryan for a number of years presented the old-
time minstrel acts on the vaudeville stage and
were always well received.
The minstrel business has been gradually de-
clining, and sooner or later that phase of stage
entertainment will be abandoned, for a time at
least. Then it will probably be revived, and
we may get a taste of the good old-time min-
strelsy, and the plantation melodies that were
once so popular. Many of the monologists and
other vaudeville performers are recruited from
the minstrel ranks. The jokes are of a better
order than in former days, and there is less illit-
eracy among performers. Nowadays a man
must keep abreast of the times, be in touch with
current events, and give the public timely stuff.
It was a long time ago that Emerson, Allen
and Manning's Minstrels were organized and
toured the country. Billy Emerson, Johnny
Allen and Billy Manning were known as fine
performers in their time, and now all of them
have passed away. Their company was a suc-
cess from the start. It was not long, however,
before Mr. Allen drew out of the organization
and became a German comedian. He had a
play called ''Schneider, or the House on the
Rhine," written for him, and after a long and
Driftwood of the Stage. 257
successful run at the Olympic Theater, New
York, took the play on the road, where it was
everywhere greeted with crowded houses. He
was always surrounded with a good company,
among whom were Alice Harrison, Little Mac,
George H. Maxwell, Sid C. France, and others
of equal prominence.
Emerson and Manning continued the com-
pany for some time, when differences arose as
to policy and they separated. Emerson was a
favorite in the cities, and had no trouble filling
his time in the week stands, while Manning took
to the one-night stands, where the most of his
popularity had been gained. The company
headed by Emerson was known as the "Big
Sunflower Minstrels." The members wore
flashy clothes, and on the street were generally
attired in black velvet sack coats bound with
wide black braid, loud check trousers cut spring
bottom. Custom at that time allowed a tall silk
hat to be worn with this style of dress. Dia-
monds were large and plentiful, and in addition
every member carried a gold-headed cane at all
times. By the profession this troupe was gen-
erally referred to as the "Gold-headed Cane
Minstrels." Emerson prospered. Manning did
258 Driftwood of the Stage.
One Sunday evening at Cincinnati, where the
Emerson company had played a big week at the
Grand Opera House, the members were gathered
at a well known resort drinking beer, listening
to the music and telling stories. The Manning
company was to open the next night at Coving-
ton, over the river on the Kentucky side, and
its members all came over to Cincinnati to spend
the evening. Manning strolled up Vine Street
with no particular destination in view, and hap-
pened to look into the resort where the Emerson
party were enjoying themselves, when one of
the number called out "Hello, Bill." Emerson
turned his head and there stood his old partner,
pale, emaciated and shabbily dressed. They had
not spoken to each other for a long time, but
when their eyes met past differences were for-
gotten, and Emerson started for the door and
soon had his arms around his old friend, and
led him to the table, where a seat was prepared
for him. The pleasure of the reunion as well
as the attentions shown him deeply affected
Manning, and he took but little part in the fes-
The party had several tables put together
around which they were assembled, and when it
came a person's turn to treat he would rap on
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 259
the table with his cane, and at times raise its
gold top in the air to summon the waiter as well
as to call attention to the cane. The turn to
treat soon came round to Manning. The gen-
tleman next to him had ordered the previous
round for the party, calling the waiter by rapping
on the table with his cane as the others had done
before him. There sat Manning without a cent
in his pocket, a smile showing through the ashen
pallor of his face. His ready wit had not de-
serted him, for he looked up at Emerson and
said : "Say, Bill, you rap for me. I haven't any
26o Driftwood of the Stage.
A BIT OF HISTORY.
It was in the latter part of the fifties that the
music hall business broke out in New York.
Wood's Minstrels at that time occupied a small
theater at 444 Broadway, which was first opened
as a minstrel hall by Henry Wood in opposition
to the Christy Minstrels, then located at 472
Broadway. Mr. Wood was very successful,
especially as he secured George Christy, who,
leaving E. P. Christy, took the bone end of
Wood's troupe, with Jim Budworth on the tam-
bourine end. The company being a strong
one soon carried the town, and the original
Christy giving up the business, they had the
minstrel field practically to themselves. After
remaining at that house for two or three years,
Mr. Wood moved his company to a new and
larger hall on the west side of Broadway, near
Prince Street, which became known as Wood's
Robert W. Butler soon after took possession
of the hall at "444," and opened the first variety
theater in the city. Specialties were few at that
Driftwood of the Stage. 261
time but a strong company was secured. Tony
Pastor, who had been a circus clown up to this
time, later joined the company, and became
famous as a comic singer.
This theater was a long, narrow hall with a
low ceiling. Smoking was allowed, and when
the little red curtain was raised a bill was pre-
sented that included three or four negro acts,
banjo playing, clog dancing, comic singing, a
ballet, a fancy dance or two, and a pantomime.
This was the vaudeville show of that day.
In the summer of 1865, Mr. Pastor secured
the theater at 201 Bowery, formerly occupied by
Hooley and Campbell's Minstrels. This was a
neat little place. No smoking was allowed and
it soon became the leading variety theater. Many
members of the opening company had come from
"444" with Tony, and for the first season there
was little change in the style of entertainment.
The next year it was different, and novelties
were sought for, some being brought from
across the water. Among the first specialists at
this house was Walter Brown, the champion
oarsman, who swung Indian clubs. They were
called Kehoe clubs in those days because they
were made by a man named Sim Kehoe. They
were cumbersome things and generally used at
262 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
Nellie Clark was the first lady club swinger
and DeWitt Cooke the first to do a juggling
act with them. Harry Gurr, the first man-fish,
performed under water in a large glass tank,
and Millie Tournor was the first lady to do the
flying trapeze. Naomi Porter was the first lady
jig dancer, and Jennie Benson the first lady to
do a clog. The first female double song and
dance was done by Addie LeBrun and Helena
Smith. The first magician on the vaudeville
stage was Prof. Robert Nickle, and Herr Hol-
tum was the first to come along with a cannon
ball act. A couple of new acts from Europe
were Leggett and Allen in a pedestal clog dance,
and James McDonald, who danced on a high
pedestal with a pair of skates.
Will Carleton, a famous Irish singer and
dancer, was brought from Europe about this
time and made an instantaneous hit. Then the
sketch teams sprang up. John and Maggie
Fielding introduced their Irish sketch, "Barney's
Courtship," in 1868, and Baker and Farron a
German sketch called "Schneider's Courtship,"
about the same time. Bowman and Harris made
their first New York appearance in their unique
black face specialty during the same season, and
Mile. Louise, the first lady drummer in vaude-
ville, appeared on the same bill.
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 263
At one time Mr. Pastor engaged a pedestrian
called Young Miles to do a walking act on his
stage. A timekeeper was selected from the aud-
ience, the stage manager would tell how many
laps there were to the mile, and away he would
go around the stage. The mile was generally
made in eight minutes. Would they tolerate
anything like that now?
Johnny Thompson is the oldest of the musi-
cal artists on the stage. He played on a number
of musical instruments in a specialty called
"The Lively Moke," as far back as 1864.
Master Allie Turner, the infant drummer, did
a drum solo at Barnum's Museum a year later.
W. B. Harrison sang extemporaneous songs,
accompanying himself on the violin. Matt
O' Rear don introduced the musical glasses to
the stage, and E. C. Dunbar an instrument
called the Musette. Conway and Kerrigan had
an act where one played the bagpipes while the
other danced. The first cornet player of note
to do a solo on the stage was Jules Levy, who
played in the olio with Allen, Pettingill, Dele-
hanty and Hengler's Minstrels many years ago.
Mortimer Williams had a specialty that was
called "Half Bushel Measure Jig," which was
danced on the inside, outside, and all over a
264 Driftwood of the Stag^e.
half bushel measure, and Signer Bueno Core, a
fire king, finished his act by heating an iron
plate red hot in the presence of the audience,
and dancing upon it with his bare feet. The
Hanlon Brothers were the first to introduce the
bicycle, then called velocipede, to the stage, and
Alice Harrison the first lady to ride a bicycle
on the stage.
Marietta Ravel danced on a tightrope at the
Canterbury Varieties, New York, in i860, and
a couple of years later El Nino Eddie, a very
small boy, did an act of this kind. Alfred Moe
was the first to do a roller skating act on the
stage. Later he took a partner named Good-
rich and they did a double skating act. Carrie
Moore was the first female skater on the stage.
Charles E. Collins, a comic vocalist and dancer,
came over from England in 1863, and became
a great attraction in a vocal dancing act which
he called "The Cure." Prof. Hilton was the
first ventriloquist in vaudeville.
Billy Courtwright and J. W. McAndrews
each made a phenomenal hit in one character.
In the knock-about, jump-about, hammer the
floor exhibition during which he sang "Flewy,
Flewy," Courtwright was for years a star at-
traction among variety theatergoers. A valise
Driftwood of the Stage. 265
and an umbrella were part and parcel of the
performance. He created a great deal of fun
for many years by this one performance, but
after a while, like most of the old one-part per-
formers, really outlived his power to amuse.
J. W. McAndrews, the "Watermelon Man,"
confessed long before he died that he could only
do this one turn, and for years nobody wanted
to see him in anything else.
Bobby Newcomb, by long odds the most
graceful and pleasing single song and dance
performer — this is admitted by theater people
to-day — w^ho ever appeared on the variety
stage, was a prime favorite up to his death.
"Love Letters" was perhaps his most popular
song and dance. He was not old at his death,
yet he had been before the public for a quarter
of a century. He was adopted when quite
young by Billy Newcomb, the once famous
minstrel and took his name. A team of song
and dance men, who are now well nigh for-
gotten, but who will be readily recalled by the-
atergoers of less than a quarter of a century
ago, as top liners among the black face knock-
abouts of the variety stage were Lester and
Allen. They were easily the best in this line
among their contemporaries, and were prime
266 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
favorites. They will be recalled as two of the
original Big Four, their partners at one time
in this aggregation being Smith and Waldron.
Another team of the song and dance variety,
but of slightly more refined characteristics,
and in white faces instead of black, was Sheri-
dan and Mack. They appeared in German
specialties largely, and in their day were con-
sidered the best in their line. They were the
originators of their line. Charley Diamond, the
Milanese minstrel, a graceful dancer and a
rather sweet singer, was likewise a one-part
performer, but he was a popular attraction, and
was rated among the high-priced variety people.
He sang and danced to a harp accompaniment,
carrying the harp strung on his shoulders. He,
too, was original in his line, and it is not re-
called that he ever had a direct imitator.
Many claim the distinction of being the first
to do a monologue, and it would be hard in-
deed to give an opinion as to who was the
originator of this specialty. Archie Hughes
used to do a specialty in the latter part of the
sixties in which he would tell gags between
the verses of a song called "George, the
A young fellow once claimed that he was
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 267
the first to do a cakewalk on the stage. He
did not seem to know that Edward Harrigan
wrote a song, "Walking for Dat Cake," which
included some fancy promenade steps by the
participants, in the early seventies. The first
tramp in vaudeville was Johnny Wild in a
sketch called "A Terrible Example," about the
same time. William Horace Lingard was the
first to do a quick change act in this country,
and Annie Hindle was the first male imperson-
ator. Major John E. Burk introduced us to
the fancy zouave drill, and Johnny Williams
gave us the first glimpse of good dancing with
his Lancashire clog. Tom Bollas was about
the first German singing comedian, and Nick
Norton and Billy Emmett were the first Ger-
man team, working together at Buffalo, N. Y.,
The Olympia Quartet (Keough, Randall, Sul-
livan and Mack), started out together in 1877,
but were not the first. Before them were the
"Ham-Town Students" and the "Four Pro-
phets," who sang negro jubilee songs.
The first pugilist on the vaudeville stage was
Sam Collyer. As to this gentleman's versa-
tility, it need only be said that on one bill at
Pastor's on the Bowery he did a triple clog
26^ Driftwood of the Sta^e.
dance with his two *'sons," played the banjo
in a sketch called "The Challenge Dance," and
closed the show with a drama called "Dan Don-
nelly, the Champion of Ireland," in which he
played the title role and gave a boxing exhibi-
tion with Barney Aaron. At other times, he
played the aged darkey in "Uncle Eph's
Dream," and occasionally would give a fine ex-
hibition of club swinging.
There used to be a lot of good acts on the
stage that we do not see any more. There was
King Sarbro with his slide for life ; Link Look,
fire eater and sword swallower; A. W. Maflin,
the spade dancer; Crossley and Elder in their
Caledonian sports, and Harry Leslie, the tight
rope walker, who carried a man on his back
from the stage to the upper gallery. Yank
Adams had a billiard table on the stage, and
made all kinds of caroms and fancy shots, using
his fingers instead of a cue to propel the ball.
Of the old-time legitimate actors, are best
remembered Edwin Forrest in "Metamora"
and "Coriolanus," Mr. and Mrs. Barney Wil-
liams in "The Connie Soogah," Frank S.
Chanfrau as Mose, John E. Owens as Solon
Shingle, Edwin Adams as Enoch Arden, John
S. Clarke as Toodle, Frank Mayo as Davy
Driftwood of the Staf^e. 269
Crockett, Charlotte Cushman as Lady Mac-
beth, Matilda Heron as Camille, and Maggie
Mitchell as Fanchon.
Some of the grand performances given in
by-gone days were those of "Oliver Twist,"
for the benefit of the Chicago fire sufferers in
1 87 1, in which Lucille Western played Nancy
Sykes. Augustin Daly gave a grand produc-
tion of this play at the Fifth Avenue Theater,
New York, May 19, 1874, with Charles Fisher
as Fagin, Louis James as Bill Sykes, Fanny
Davenport as Nancy, Bijou Heron as Oliver,
and James Lewis as the Artful Dodger. The
revival of "The Octoroon" at Barnum's
Museum in 1867, with Milnes Levick, George
Brookes and Mrs. J. J. Prior in the cast; J.
W. Wallack in "The Bells," at Booth's Thea-
ter in 1872, and the benefit for the family of
Dan Bryant at the Academy of Music, New
York, April 29, 1875. At the last named en-
tertainment a chorus of minstrel singers sang
"Massa's in the Cold, Cold, Ground," in a
manner never to be forgotten. On that day
benefit performances were given in ten different
theaters at New York, for the widow and chil-
dren of Mr. Bryant, the receipts of which to-
gether with the donations amounted to over
270 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
P. T. Barnum lost three of his museums by
fire — the one on the corner of Broadway and
Ann Street, July 13, 1865; at Broadway near
Spring Street, in March, 1868, and on Four-
teenth Street, opposite Tammany Hall, Decem-
ber 24, 1872. In 1866 three theaters burned
in New York. The American Theater, better
known as "444," on February 15; the Academy
of Music, May 22, and the New Bowery
Theater, December 15. Niblo's Garden was
destroyed by fire May 7, 1872, and Winter
Garden, March 23, 1867. An attempt was
made to burn this theater on November 25,
1864. The Confederate plot to set fire to the
hotels and theaters of New York was to be
carried out that night, and the Lafarge House,
w^hich adjoined the theater, was set on fire by
the conspirators. The house was crowded, the
three brothers Booth — ^Junius Brutus, John
Wilkes and Edwin — appearing in "Julius
Caesar," for the benefit of a fund to erect a
statue of Shakespeare in Central Park. The
firmness and presence of mind of the police
alone prevented a terrible loss of life. A Con-
federate officer named Kennedy was arrested ^
for being implicated in the plot, convicted, and
hanged at Fort Lafayette three months later.
Driftwood of the Sta^^e. 271
On the ledgers of most of the amusement
enterprises will be found a curious item of ex-
pense, which to the profession is known as a
"shakedown." It is the result of an adage that
it is perfectly legitimate to beat the showman.
Why is it that lawyers, business men and
town officials who are irreproachable in their
conduct towards their fellow men during the
remainder of the year, set their wits to work
the minute a stand of show bills goes up?
When the village lazybones wants some money
to carry him along for the rest of the year with-
out the trouble of working for it, he proceeds
to fall through the seats, and a lawyer will soon
show up with an attachment for the manager
to stay right where he is until his client has
received a few hundred dollars for fancied in-
juries. As the showman cannot stop for a single
day without damaging his prestige and can-
celing valuable dates, he pays up, and calls it a
"shakedown" on his ledger.
An alderman who made a demand on the
272 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
manager of the leading theater in his city for
ten seats for an attraction playing to advanced
prices was told that it would be impossible to
grant his request, but the house would pro-
vide seats for himself and wife. This would
not do. The tickets had been promised to his
constituents and if not forthcoming there would
be trouble. Reason was out of the question,
and the city father vowed vengeance. It was
not long after that an ordinance was presented
to the city council regulating the scale of prices
to be charged in theaters, the attention of the
fire department was called to the insufficient fire
protection and the building department got busy
suggesting expensive alterations. All proceed-
ings came to a sudden stop when the manager
subscribed five dollars towards purchasing a
gold badge for presentation to the alderman,
and which was duly entered in the "shake-
Nearly all of the large traveling organiza-
tions have on their staff one to whom all com-
plaints and grievances are referred. He is
called either a "squarer" or a "handy-boy." His
duties are to protect the company from losses of
all kinds, especially "shakedowns." I^or nearly
half a year he follows the white tents. Every
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 273
morning he is up at the break of day, and the
last to retire at night. His services are liable
to be required at any minute. Incidentally he
will interview the mayor when the license is
thought to be excessive, and on the way back
pick up a small boy who has got tangled up in
the parade, and safely land him on the side-
walk, or perhaps take a frightened horse by
the head until the caliope has passed.
It is necessary that he should be a man of
sound judgment, a good talker, affable at all
times, and with enough knowledge of common
law to hold his own with the pettifogging
lawyer, who is a constant source of trouble.
With Chesterfieldian grace he must calm the
woman who has been caught in the jam at the
ticket wagon, and just as politely inform those
who are following the company for the purpose
of fleecing its patrons to get away and stay
away from the show, giving them at the same
time to understand if they are again seen
around the lot a few canvasmen will be turned
loose at them.
On a Sunday morning during the season of
1887, the train carrying the Miller, Okey and
Freeman Circus rolled into Easton, Pa., where
the company were to exhibit the following dav.
274 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
When the employes started to unload the cars
they were stopped by the authorities with the
information that they would not be allowed to
unload or haul their belongings through the
streets on Sunday. The "handy-boy" soon
discovered it was the work of a so-called law
and order league, and sought out the officers
of the society and asked permission to unload
the animals and erect the horse and cook tents,
promising to leave all other work until the
following day. Those having the matter in
charge refused to allow work of any kind to be
done. The city officials were appealed to, but
gave no satisfaction. The "handy-boy" saw
but one way out of the dilemma. He called on
the president of the society for the prevention
of cruelty to animals and stated his case. It
was shown how much suffering would be caused
by the animals being confined in crowded cars
for a whole day. Arrangements could be made
for feeding the people at hotels and restaurants
if they would only allow the dumb creatures to
be properly fed and cared for. The two socie-
ties at once commenced a fight for supremacy.
The cause of the humane society was espoused
by many, and the company was allowed to un-
load and put up shelter for its animals, and the
Driftwood of the Stage. 2yc^
cook tent to feed the employes. The following
day the rest of the canvas was put up, two per-
formances given, and the company went away
leaving the Law and Order League and the
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Ani-
mals engaged in a fight that was a long and
The proprietor of a well-known minstrel
company, himself a musician of note, took great
pride in the band of the organization, the mem-
bers of which were handsomely uniformed and
selected with great care, each being a soloist on
the instrument he played. A set of gold instru-
ments were manufactured expressly for them,
and the band was billed as "The $10,000 Chal-
lenge Gold Band. The Best Band Traveling!''
During the parade in a small Ohio town a
horse shied, and in consequence a slight dam-
age was done to a buggy belonging to a resi-
dent of the town, who rushed to a lawyer's
office and began a suit for damages. The man-
ager was taken before a justice of the peace on a
civil warrant, and in the complaint appeared
the following: "And then and there a body
of mountebanks, commonly called minstrels, in
odd, grotesque, and unusual dress, and carry-
ing with them a number of brass, wooden, and
2'j(y Driftwood of the Sta^^e.
other horns, bugles, trumpets, cymbals and
drums, did on said horns, bugles, trumpets,
cymbals and drums, make and perform loud,
hideous and discordant noises and sounds to
the great discomfort and annoyance of the citi-
zens of said city and county, then and there
lawfully assembled, and by reason of said loud,
hideous and discordant noises and sounds, did
then and there frighten horses, mules, and other
beasts of burden in use by said citizens," and
so on. Experience had taught the manager that
a fight was useless and he settled, paying twenty
times the amount of the damage. He left the
court room with a look of sorrow on his face.
He did not care for the money. It was what
they said about the band.
One of the small towns in Illinois which had
been founded by Quakers and populated princi-
pally by members of that sect, gave no encour-
agement to traveling companies and would al-
ways refuse permission to the circus. The
advance representative of a circus company
wished to give a performance in the town, and
knowing the feeling of the authorities on the
subject, called on one of the leading business
men and sought his aid in bringing the com-
pany to the place. The case was presented to
Driftzvood of the Sta^^c. 277
the merchant in a business-like manner; he was
told of the crowds that would come from the
country, the money that would be spent by the
visitors, and on seeing that his arguments were
having no weight on his auditor, the agent
stated that the date on which they wished to
visit the town happened to be pay day with the
company, and their three hundred employes
would be liable to spend a goodly sum with the
storekeepers. Several other business men were
called in to listen to the story, which was re-
peated for their benefit, and after a conference
among them the agent departed with the desired
permission, much elated at his success.
The show arrived as advertised, and was the
first spread of canvas ever put up in the place.
Just as the morning parade was about to take
place three sober-faced town officials called at
the ground and asked to see the party in charge.
The manager received them politely, thinking
they wanted to look over the outfit, and was
about to detail one of the men to show them
around, when the visitors informed him that
they were given to understand the company
employed three hundred people in different ca-
pacities and wanted to take down their names
before the license to exhibit would be signed.
278 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
The heads of departments were quickly gotten
together and tables were arranged for the offi-
cials who were to take the names. The com-
pany carried less than one-half of the number
mentioned but that did not matter. One of the
men in a red coat would be registered as a mem-
ber of the band, later in a gray coat and under
a different name as a driver, and again in over-
alls as a hostler, and so on until the required
number was obtained, and the officials departed
as quietly as they came.
No one could imagine what was up. Here
w^ere men who had passed through all kinds of
"shakedowns" trying to figure out what was
to be the outcome of the visit of the three mys-
terious Quakers. Great care was exercised all
through the day so there could be no cause for
complaint by anyone. Everything passed off
in an orderly manner, but not until the last car
was loaded and the train had left the town did
the management feel easy. The company left
a man behind to see what might turn up, and
his report a few days later explained all.
It seemed the Quakers were anxious to
abate the saloons in their midst, and to do this
the straggling village must necessarily be in-
corporated as a city, and under the laws of the
Driftwood of the Sta^^e. 279
state no town with less than one thousand popu-
lation could be incorporated. They had waited
until the circus came along, a census was taken,
the three hundred names thus gained showing
an excess of the required number of people and
soon followed the incorporation. It was a case
of "shakedown" pure and simple, but this was
one of the times that the showman was not the
It is surprising to see how many people have
claims on the amusement enterprise for favors
and will make trouble if they do not get them.
The man who hauls the baggage wants tickets
for everybody he knows, or look out for damage
to the belongings of the company. Around the
railway station there are several who must be
looked after or something will happen to make
you more careful in the next town. Then come
the city and county officers, the constables and
policemen. Not one of them was ever known
to come alone, it seeming to be their duty to
pick up all they can on the way and bring them
along. The city clerk who has done nothing
but receive his regular fee for making out the
license, drops in with several of his friends and
feels insulted if you do not admit all of them.
You must not forget the bill poster, he also
28o Driftwood of the Sta^e.
has a lot of friends. Slight him and you might
as well cut that town out of your visiting list,
for if you should come again your paper could
not be found with a search warrant. Around
the hotel you must show no favoritism. Passes
for everybody, from proprietor to bell-boy, or
you may ring the bell to your heart's content,
and between the kitchen and dining-room help
you will get all that is coming to you for daring
to bring a show into town and not provide them
These people have been paid for all the ser-
vices they have rendered, then they demand
more. In other walks of life this would be
called blackmail. In the amusement world they
prefer to call it a "shakedown."
It is strange how much time and sometimes
money will be spent to gain free admission to a
place of amusement. A company was playing
an interior town in New York, and an old
farmer hunted up the manager at the hotel and
proceeded to become friendly. He bought
drinks and cigars and was so good natured he
could not be shaken off. After he had hung
around all day. and was still patting the mana-
ger on the back, he was asked the reason for his
kind attention, and in an honest way replied:
Driftwood of the Stag^e. 281
"Well, you are the man who gives out free
tickets to the show and I thought mebbe I could
work in on you/^
As a reward for his honesty he was given a
season pass, and pains were taken to explain
to him that while the company would be in that
town but one night, the pass would be good
wherever the show played during the season.
The old chap was tickled half to death, and that
night he was the first one in the theater and
the last one to leave. He was at the depot the
next morning and went along to the next town.
In fact, he followed on for a week, and was
ready to stand treat at any time. At the end
of a week he began to get uneasy and count up
his change, and when it was seen that he was
about ready to let go he was asked if he had
enough of theatricals.
''It's my money that has give out," he re-
pHed. "I'm right down to sixty cents, and
have got to telegraph for money to get back
home. If I'd only had time to prepare for it
I'd have sold some cattle and gone right
through to California with you. By John, but I
hate to give up this pass."
"How much will you take for it?" the man-
282 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
ager asked, curious to know what value he set
"Well, bein' as you give it to me in the first
place, and bein' as everybody has used me first
rate, Til tell you what I'll do. Gimme my fare
home and fifty dollars in cash and she's yours."
Driftzvood of the Stage. 283
AT HOME AND ABROAD.
Complaints have frequently been made by
American actors filling engagements in Eng-
land, especially in London, that they seldom
receive courteous treatment while there. The
coldness of the audiences, the merciless criticism
of the press, and other annoyances to which
they are subject, has a tendency to impress on
the mind a concerted attempt by the English
people to embarrass the actor, and a disposition
to show a hostile feeling against American
artists and enterprises.
Of course, allowance must be made for na-
tional prejudice that can never be wholly ef-
faced. The English playgoer strenuously up-
holds the right to hiss a performance as one
of the prerogatives of his admission fee, or if
he feels so disposed, to sit through the play in
solemn silence. While there are a number of
American actors who have met with hospitality,
fair play and appreciation in Eingland, at the
same time there are many more who have been
received in a manner far different from what
284 Driftzvood of the Stage.
While a generous welcome generally awaits
the English actor's visit to our shores, there
have been cases where the Englishman's path-
way was not strewn with roses. Edmund Kean
was received on his opening night at New York
with such an uproar that he could not be heard,
and at Boston he was assailed by a veritable
rain of apples, potatoes, gingerbread, and bot-
tles filled with asafoetida. A few years later
William C. Macready had to flee for his life.
No violence was offered to Barry Sullivan, but
his treatment was far from courteous.
It seems rather strange that in all the bi-
ographies and reminiscences that have been
written by prominent players, not one of them
mentions the name of Barry Sullivan, one of
the best Shakespearean readers and scholars of
his day. Even in Joseph Jefferson's delightful
autobiography, no mention is made of Mr. Sul-
livan, although Mr. Jefferson played Graves
to the Evelyn of Mr. Sullivan in the comedy of
"Money," at the Princess Theater, Melbourne,
Australia, in 1862. A supper was tendered
those gentlemen and the two captains com-
manding the ships that took them out to Aus-
As a man Mr. Sullivan was not very well
Driftwood of the Staf^e. 285
liked. To some he appeared cold and distant,
and his jealousy of other actors was almost
childish. Yet, with these failings, he was one
of the most versatile actors the stage ever knew
— equally good in tragedy, comedy, Irish
drama and farce. He was also an admirable
manager. He was master of all the duties and
details connected with a theater, from those of
call boy up.
Barry Sullivan's first appearance in America
was made at the Broadway Theater, New York,
November 22, 1858, in the character of Ham-
let. Personations of Claude Melnotte, Mac-
beth, Shylock, and Richard III. followed. A
month later he opened at Burton's Theater in
the same city, at which house he was princi-
pally supported by William Davidge, J. H.
Allen, Fanny Morant and Ada Clifton.
In some of the cities afterward visited he
encountered a spirit of malignant persecution.
During his first engagement at the Walnut
Street Theater, Philadelphia, he was charged
with spitting at Harry Perry, who was playing
Richmond, in the last act of "Richard III," the
partisans of that actor construing a characteris-
tic bit of stage business on the part of the Irish
tragedian into a personal insult to their favorite.
286 Driftzvood of the Sta^e.
There can be no doubt, furthermore, that the
ill-feeling excited by this mistaken impression
was considerably aggravated by a remarkable
passage at arms which Mr. Sullivan had at this
time in this very theater with the great Edwin
Forrest. When not acting himself, the sten-
torian American tragedian had a habit of going
to see whatever rival player happened to be in
the neighborhood, and noisily expressing his
disapproval of any passage not delivered to his
liking. It has been said that during this en-
gagement Mr. Forrest went to see him play
Hamlet, and was so disgusted with Mr. Sulli-
van's resemblance to Mr. Macready that he an-
noyed both players and audience by frequent
interruptions and other evidences of disappro-
bation. It may be of interest to this genera-
tion to know that Mr. Forrest's hatred of
Macready developed into an international ques-
tion, and culminated in the Astor Place Opera
House riot in May, 1849, when it was neces-
sary to call out the military to quell the mob.
At the time of Mr. Forrest's second visit to
London, which occurred in 1845, he appeared
at the Princess Theater, London, as Macbeth.
On this occasion he was hissed, which indignity
he ascribed to the intrigues of Macready. The
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 287
following year Mr. Forrest hissed Macready's
Hamlet at Edinburgh. On his return to this
country, Mr. Forrest played to houses crowded
night after night, for a month or more. He
was then at the height of his popularity; it was
before the Forrest divorce suit brought his
name so unpleasantly and so unhappily before
Mr. Forrest was much beloved by that singu-
lar and now extinct product of New York life,
the Bowery boy. The volunteer fire department
gave birth to the Bowery boy, who worked for
his living on week days, and on evenings and
holidays aimed only to be a dandy and a fire-
His hair was cropped at the back of his
head as closely as scissors would cut, while the
long front locks were stiffened with bear's
grease, and then brushed until they shone like
glass. His face was closely shaven, as beards
in any shape were considered effeminate, and
so forbidden by his creed. A black, straight
broad-brimmed silk hat was worn with a pitch
forward and a slight inclination to one side, in-
tended to impart a rakish air. A large shirt
collar turned down and loosely fashioned so as
to expose the full proportions of a brawny neck ;
288 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
a black frock coat with skirts extending to the
knee; a flashy satin or velvet vest, cut so low
as to expose the entire bosom of an embroidered
shirt; trousers tight to the knee, thence grad-
ually swelling in size to the bottom so as to
nearly conceal the feet encased in well-polished
boots — these with much jewelry, a voice mod-
eled after that of the fire trumpet, and a lan-
guage all his own completed the picture of the
Bowery boy — first at fires, devoted patron of
the theater, and loyal to his friends and his
country. Rough, rather than tough, he scorned
to use any weapons save those that nature gave
him. Few there were in the days of his glory
that could compel his reverence.
The volunteer fireman at that time was a vast
power in New York. He received no compen-
sation from the city. Where his duty led him
there he went; and when honest motives
prompted him he acted accordingly.
The fire boys fairly idolized Jenny Lind. She
gave $3,000 to the Widows' and Orphans'
Fund of the Fire Department, and to show their
gratitude, the firemen held a public meeting, and
in a gold box, purchased by subscription for
the purpose, conveyed to the singer the reso-
lutions passed at the meeting. On the lid of the
Driftwood of the Sta^e, 289
box was a scroll with this inscription: "The
Firemen of New York to Miss Jenny Lind,
September 13, 1850." They also gave her a
handsome rosewood bookcase containing Audo-
bon's ''Birds and Quadrupeds of America." At
one of her concerts these new found friends
quite upset the singer's gravity by crowding
the house and on her appearance rising to their
feet and welcoming her with three cheers.
Catharine Hayes was another of their favor-
ites. She gave a concert for their Fund and
they never forgot it. When this lady arrived
in California she found that many of these New
York boys had preceded her in the search for
gold, and each had constituted himself an ad-
vance agent to herald her coming. Miss Hayes
was a great success in California, but through
the failure of her bankers, she lost all. A
benefit was given her and the fire boys had
charge of the affair. The seats were sold at
auction. The bidding on the first seat was
spirited. An admirer bid as high as $1,050,
but finding he was contending against a wealthy
fire company, withdrew. The company finally
paid $1,250 for the coveted seat, and the gen-
tleman took second choice for $1,000.
To these loyal fellows Mr. Forrest was the
290 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
greatest actor in all the world. An insult to
him was an insult to them. They seemed
banded together as one. On a banner carried
by one of the companies was this inscription:
"The injury of one is the concern of all," but
this motto was simplified by them with the
saying "Hit one, hit all." Their loyalty to
country was shown at the outbreak of the civil
war, when a regiment of 1,200 of these brave
laddies was organized by Colonel Ellsworth,
and one of the first to arrive for the defense of
the capital. In one case, every single member
of a fire company volunteered for two years of
the war. In the old New York Volunteer Fire
Department one company was known as For-
rest Engine, No. 3, and another as Edwin
Forrest Hose, No. 5, in honor of the great tra-
gedian. Metamora Hose, No. 29, was named
in honor of one of Mr. Forrest's most famous
characters, that of the Indian chieftain.
On May 7, 1849, Mr. Macready was an-
nounced to appear at the Astor Place Opera
House, New York, as Macbeth. The friends
of Mr. Forrest well remembered the insult that
their favorite claimed had been offered him in
England simply because he was an American,
and not because of his art. They filled the
Driftwood of tlie Sta^e. 291
house and when Mr. Macready appeared a
storm of hisses was launched at him. Cheers
were given for Mr. Forrest and groans for the
Englishman. Finding it impossible to give the
performance, the curtain was dropped and the
audience dismissed. This way of treating a
visitor to our shores did not meet the approval
of all, and a petition signed by man)- of the city's
most prominent men was presented to Mr.
Macready, asking him to finish his engagement
and the authorities assured him of protection.
On Thursday evening, May 10, he again ap-
peared in the character of Macbeth. This night
thousands came to see what would happen to
the English actor. His treatment was much
worse than he had previously received, and he
narrowly escaped with his life. In the rioting
that followed twenty-two persons were killed
and thirty-six wounded. He was obliged to fly
from the city to save himself from violence,
and went to New Rochelle, N. Y., where friends
kept him in seclusion. Shortly after he sailed
from Boston to his home.
On February 2, 1852, Mrs. Forrest, under
her maiden name, Catharine Sinclair, made her
theatrical debut playing Pauline and Lady
Teazle, at Brougham's Lyceum, then on the
292 Driftwood of the Stage.
south-west corner of Broadway and Broome
Street, New York. The Forrest divorce suit
at that time was the all pervading topic of dis-
cussion and interest; and public feeling was
strongly for or against the contending parties.
It was feared that the scenes of the Astor Place
riot Avould be repeated. The crowds were
enormous. Indoors a large body of police were
on hand to preserve order, and the Seventh and
Twelfth Regiments of the National Guard were
drawn up on Broome Street in case their services
were required. There was no disturbance, it
not being deemed safe or expedient to interfere
with the performance.
Returning from, his American trip, which
extended as far as California, Mr. Sullivan
made his reappearance in London at the St.
James' Theater, August 20, i860, as Hamlet.
His second and last engagement in this coun-
try was under the management of Jarrett and
Palmer, and began at Booth's Theater, New
York, August 30, 1875. 'I'he contract called
for one hundred performances in the principal
cities of the country, twenty-one to be given
at this theater.
On the opening night he was escorted to the
theater by the famous Sixty-ninth Regiment,
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 293
the city's representative Irish organization. The
regiment, more than 1,000 strong, in full uni-
form, helped to pack the house. Immense
crowds blocked the streets and a large force of
police was necessary to keep a passage for the
cars. No seats were to be had at the box office,
and speculators were selling what they had
secured at five dollars each. The crowd began
to collect around the theater early in the even-
ing and by eight o'clock fully 20,000 persons
surrounded the building. The theater could
only accommodate 3,000, so the remainder were
contented to wait outside until midnight in or-
der that they might get a glimpse of Mr. Sulli-
van, and have the satisfaction of escorting him
to his hotel with bands and a torchlight pre-
cession. The Irish colors were much in
evidence, the exterior as well as the interior
being handsomely draped, and the orchestra
gave a program of Irish selections. The
play was "Hamlet," with James F. Cathcart
as the Ghost, Frederick B. Warde as Laertes,
and Louise Hibbert as Ophelia.
On the same night E. L. Davenport, a
formidable rival, played the Dane at the Grand
Opera House, two blocks away. In his sup-
port were Robert Johnston as the Ghost, Joseph
294 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
Wheelock as Laertes, and Laura Don as
Ophelia. This theater was profusely decorated
inside and out with American flags, and the
orchestra played national airs, in which the
audience joined in singing. After the perform-
ance the supporters of the American Hamlet
marched through the streets, singing patriotic
songs, to the Fifth Avenue Hotel, where Mr.
Sullivan was being serenaded by the band of
the Sixty-ninth. The police were prepared for
any clash that might happen between the rival
factions, but none occurred.
In July, 1886, Henry E. Abbey made over-
tures to Mr. Sullivan for a tour of this coun-
try to continue forty weeks, and to include the
larger cities of the United States and Canada,
but the offer was declined on account of ill-
health. In the following year he bade fare-
well to the stage, when he brought his engage-
ment at the Royal Alexandra Theater, Liver-
pool, to a close on June 4, 1887, with an
impersonation of Richard III. Not long after
this, while he was telling friends who were
visiting him some reminiscences of his early
days, he fell back in his chair stricken with
paralysis. He wasted away under the devasta-
tions of this terrible disease, and on May 3,
Driftwood of the Stage. 295
1 89 1, in the presence of his entire family he
quietly passed from earth. Five days later all
that was mortal of poor Barry Sullivan was laid
in its last resting place in the beautiful Glas-
nevin Cemetery at Dublin, Ireland.
296 Driftwood of the Stage.
PATRIOTISM OF STAGE FOLKS.
A party of stage folks were gathered to pay
their last respects to an actor who had passed
away. A carefully arranged American flag on
the casket showed that he had also been a
soldier. Flowers were the tributes of friends,
the flag the tribute of the entire nation.
There was a time when there were a large
number of veterans of the civil war in the pro-
fession. Each fought for what he deemed the
right, and on their respective memorial days
loving hands strew flowers on the grave of the
actor who fought for the cause that won, and
with the same feeling decorate the grave of
the one whose cause was lost. It would take
much space to record all their names. Thou-
sands of stage folks who made noble sacrifices
to serve their country have passed away, among
whom will be found such names as Daniel H.
Harkins, William E. Sheridan, Henry C.
Miner, Harry Kernell, Nate Salsbury, and
others of equal prominence.
It might be well to also mention Jean Daven-
Driftwood of the Stage. 297
port Lander, who ranked among the most
accompHshed tragic actresses of her day. She
became the wife of Colonel Frederick W.
Lander, a civil engineer, in i860. When the
war broke out Colonel Lander joined the Union
army, was made a general and killed in battle
on March 3, 1862. Mrs. Lander, who at the
time of her marriage had retired from the stage,
did not return to it for several years, preferring
in the meanwhile to devote herself to the cause
in which her husband's life had been given up.
That cause she served as a hospital nurse at
Washington, and later she took entire charge
of the hospital department at Port Royal, S. C,
and rendered good service to her country in ad-
ministering aid and comfort to the wounded
and dying soldiers. Charlotte Cushman gave
benefit performances at New York, Phila-
delphia, Boston, Washington and Baltimore for
the relief of sick and wounded soldiers, realizing
the sum of $9,000, which was turned over to
the United States Sanitary Commission.
James E. Murdoch, one of the greatest of
American tragedians, was under engagement
to open at Pittsburg during the excitement
caused by the attack on Fort Sumpter. On his
arrival there he found that his youngest son
298 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
had enlisted and started for Washington with
the Cincinnati Zouave Guard, and had passed
through Pittsburg only a few hours before his
arrival there. Though Mr. Murdoch's name
was on the bills for that night he determined
to follow his son, and locking up his trunks and
sending them to his home in Ohio, he solemnly
asserted he would never act again until peace
was declared. He had hoped to serve as a
soldier, but his health broke down and after
two attempts, he gave up the idea of serving
in the field and devoted himself to the sick and
wounded, reading to and encouraging the
men in the field, visiting the hospitals, and giv-
ing benefits all over the country for the aid of
the Sanitary Commission. He was appointed
an aide on the staff of General Rousseau, and
for four years devoted himself to the cause.
Charles Wyndham, one of the most popular
English actors that ever visited our shores,
always pointed with pride to his service in our
civil war. In the cosy study in his pretty home
in St. John's Wood Park is to be seen sus-
pended over the mantelpiece the sword which
he wore as brigade surgeon of the Nineteenth
Army Corps, during the Seven Days' and Red
River campaigns. Mr. Wyndham was ap-
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 299
f ointed to this position by Major-General N. P.
Banks, after an introduction given to him by
P. T. Barnum. Dan Rice did much for the
soldiers while in the field, and at the close of
the war erected a monument to the memory of
those who died in defense of their country. This
monument, which is one of the finest in the
state, is located in one of the public squares at
Among the women of America who made
themselves famous during the rebellion was
Pauline Cushman. While playing at Wood's
Theater, Louisville, Ky., in March, 1863, she
forsook the stage and entered the Federal ser-
vice as a scout and spy, and was at once detailed
to carry orders between Louisville and Nash-
ville. She was subsequently employed by
General Rosecrans, and for many months at-
tached to the Army of the Cumberland. She
visited the Confederate lines time after time,
and rendered her country invaluable service.
She was twice taken prisoner, but managed to
escape without giving away any of the secrets
entrusted to her by the Federal government.
It was just after Nashville was taken that the
little w^oman was captured while making a trip
near that city. Again she managed to escape
300 Driftwood of the. Sta^e.
only to be recaptured the following morning.
They held to her this time and found in her
garters papers which proved conclusively that
she was a scout and spy. Arrangements were
being made to hang her when the Union forces
marched into the town and took possession.
For meritorious services she was given the
brevet of major, and afterward became known
in theatrical circles as Major Pauline Cushman.
At one time Adah Isaacs Menken became in-
terested in military affairs and was elected cap-
tain of a company at Dayton, Ohio. On her
travels her commission as an officer was placed
on exhibition in the lobbies of the theaters
where she played, and attracted much attention.
During one of her engagements at Albany, N.
Y., she paid a visit to the armory of the Twen-
ty-fifth Regiment of that city, and was hospit-
ably received. At her benefit a few days later,
she sang a song dedicated to that regiment.
During the civil war she frequently got in hot
water by expressing herself a little too freely
as a secessionist. She was very fond of decor-
ating her rooms with Confederate flags every-
where she went. While playing at Baltimore,
then under military rule, she was arrested and
placed under guard during the reign of Provost
Driftwood of the Stage. 301
Marshal Fish, but was treated with considera-
tion on account of her manifold charms of man-
ner and person. Charlotte Crampton aban-
doned the stage when informed that her son
had enlisted in the Union army for the war.
Althouo^h at that time more than a middle-ager^
woman she became a vivandiere, and followed
her boy's regiment through the campaign.
At the first call for troops a number of
theatrical men met on the stage of the New
Bowery Theater, New York, to recruit a com-
pany for the Eighth New York Infantry.
George L. Fox was elected a lieutenant in the
company and served at the front with the or-
ganization during the entire period of its
service. Nearly all the members of the company
were in some way identified with the theatrical
profession. About the same time recruiting
was going on at the Howard Athenaeum, Bos-
ton, for a company in the Twenty-eighth Mas-
sachusetts Infantry. On its organization
Lawrence Barrett was elected captain. When
this company went to the front William J. Le-
Moyne was its first lieutenant, and when Mr.
Barrett resigned Mr. LeMoyne was advanced
to the vacant position. He was badly wounded
at the battle of South Mountain. A company
302 Driftwood of the Stage.
was recruited for the Fifth Michigan Infantry
at the National Theater, Detroit, Mich., and a
number of stage folks signed the roll. E. T.
Sherlock, at that time manager of the house,
became its captain. He was soon promoted to
be major, and was killed by a shell while lead-
ing his regiment at the battle of Chancellors-
ville, Va., in May, 1863.
In January, 1861, a call was sent out among
the theatrical profession requesting their at-
tendance on the stage of the Varieties' Theater,
New Orleans, for the purpose of organizing a
military company to assist in the defense of
the city, and if necessary to be offered for ser-
vice in the cause of the Confederacy. The
original idea of having none but those connected
with the stage was closely carried out, and over
one hundred names were obtained at this meet-
ing. The organization selected the name of
"The Cocktail Guards," and John E. Owens,
at that time the manager of the house, was
chosen captain. Among those prominent in
theatrical life who assisted in the formation and
became active members of the company were
Mark Smith, Carlo Patti, Thomas W. Davey,
Harry Hawk, Luke Schoolcraft, M. W. Lef-
Driftwood of the Stage. 303
fingwell, Louis Sharpe, Fred Maeder and
Thomas B. MacDonough.
When General George B. McClellan was
removed from the command of the army in
1862, it caused much bitterness among the
soldiers in the field. He had the love and con-
fidence of his men, many of whom openly de-
clared he was the victim of political intrigue.
Septimus Winner at the time composed a song
entitled "Give Us Back Our Old Commander,"
and because of the sentiments it expressed
stirred up so much feeling that its publication
was stopped by the war department. The song
was prohibited in public places. A singer in
a Philadelphia theater was stopped in the middle
of a verse by the authorities, and a New York
manager, who after asking legal advice on the
subject, announced the song for a certain even-
ing, was informed by the provost marshal of
the city that if he allowed the song to be sung
all connected would be locked up in Fort
In the summer of 1863, Madeline Hardy,
adopted daughter of Peter Richings, and for
many years a member of the Richings Opera
Company, began an engagement at the
Academy of Music, New Orleans, then under
304 Driftwood of the Stage.
the management of David Bidwell. While there
the song, ''Death of Stonewall Jackson" was
written, and Miss Hardy being a great favorite
in New Orleans and a typical southern girl, the
piece was dedicated to her. It created such an
excitement that General Sheridan, who at that
time was commanding the troops in the city,
martial law having been declared, forbade Miss
Hardy singing the song. The following even-
ing she wore a white dress with a red ribbon
suspended from the left shoulder. Red and
white were the Confederate colors, and they
were worn without thinking of causing any
trouble. General Sheridan resented it and sent
a squad of soldiers with orders to remove her
entire wardrobe from the theater. This was
done and a riot nearly resulted, but was finally
No regiment, north or south, had so many
members of the theatrical profession in its ranks
as the Ninth New York Infantry (Hawkins*
Zouaves). While at Roanoke Island in 1862,
the soldiers formed "The Zouave Minstrel and
Dramatic Club." A building was assigned to
them which was soon converted into a theater.
From the ranks came the scene painters, theatri-
cal mechanics, experienced property men, and
Driftwood of the Stage. 305
costumers to make and care for the wardrobe.
An orchestra was soon gotten together of musi-
cians who had often received the plaudits of
metropoHtan audiences. No matter what the
play the parts could always be filled with pro-
A regular admission fee was charged and
the season proved sp successful that after paying
all expenses, ^he sum of $400 was turned over
to the hospital fund. Crowds came from all the
camps on the Island, many frequently were turn-
ed away, and the natives were simply astounded
at the versatility of the soldiers. There were
many actors in the companies of this regiment
selected to make the gallant charge at Roanoke
Island, the first bayonet charge of the war.
When the command to charge was given the
men responded instantly, and dashed forward.
Within five minutes they had swarmed over the
parapet and through the embrasures, and the
battle was won. Many lives were lost, but no
men ever died more bravely.
A few years after the close of the civil war, a
young fellow started out as advance representa-
tive of a company touring the smaller cities of
the south. Arriving at a town in South Caro-
lina, where his company was booked to play,
3o6 Driftwood of the Stage.
he met the agent of another company which
was to play the town four days previous to
him, and who should have had his work done
and on his way. He was full of trouble. He
claimed that in all his theatrical experience he
had never met such a tough proposition to do
business with as the manager of that place.
The manager, who was also the bill-poster,
would do nothing for him, and he was com-
pelled to do all his own advertising and bill-
posting and at that could only get up his print-
ing in out-of-the-way places.
Expecting the same kind of treatment, the
young man started out to find the manager and
make himself known, and to his surprise was
greeted most cordially. The two had not con-
versed long when he was informed that if he
would get his billing matter ready it would be
put up that afternoon. When all was ready to
start out, it was noticed that three of the man-
ager's fingers were missing. Handing him the
package of printing, the more fortunate agent
took up the two heavy buckets of paste and
followed. In a short time a stand of his bills
was posted on the most conspicuous bill board
in town. They were fairly under way with
another stand when the disappointed agent
Driftwood of the Stage. 307
came along and began to abuse the manager
for his lack of attention and the poor showing
of his paper. The manager stopped his work
and turned his gaze toward a badge that was
displayed on the breast of the agent. It was
the symbol of the Fourteenth Army Corps of
Sherman's command, a little golden acorn
hanging from a miniature American flag.
Pointing to it with his wounded hand he said:
"People that has them kind of ornaments on
them generally has niggers do their work."
There are still a number of veterans of this
terrible conflict prominently before the public.
The side on which they fought should not be
asked. Time has effaced all differences, and
when the last of those who so honored their
profession shall have passed away, let us hope
that we will find them
"Wearing robes of spotless white,
Not coats of gray aud blue."
3o8 Driftzvood of the Stage.
THE ACTOR AND THE ACTORS'
A tragedian of national reputation, sup-
ported by a capable company, was acting a
series of Shakespearean characters at a theater
in a western city. At another house but a
couple of blocks distant, at the same time, ap-
peared a young prize-fighter, who having just
won the championship was thought a fit sub-
ject for theatrical honors. The tragedian
played to empty seats, while the pugilist was
turning away hundreds at every performance.
One night the real actor addressed his audience
and concluded by saying he did not see why
the theater-going public should give its pat-
ronage to prize-fighters, outlaws, and men of
those classes, and refuse tp recognize true art.
In the hotel lobby one day the tragedian was
approached by a little fellow dressed in the
height of fashion, who thus accosted him:
"Say, what do you mean by goin' 'round
knockin' me an' me show?"
Driftwood of the Stage. 309
*'I beg pardon, sir, but I do not know you,'*
replied the actor.
"You know me all right, all right. Fm the
attraction at the opposition house, that's who
I am," said the little fellow.
"Indeed? Well, if that is so," retorted the
actor, "I feel doubly sure that the remarks I
made in reference to you, sir, were perfectly
"Say, old man, we'll let it go at that," re-
plied the pugilist. "We're both troupers and
ought to be good fellers, and if that's the way
you feel about it, I'll accept your apology."
The theatrical profession is recruited from
all stations in life. Of course, there are some
w^ho are really born in the business. In that
class we have John Drew, Edgar L. Davenport,
George M. Cohan, Henry B. Harris, and hun-
dreds of others whose parents were well-known
actors and managers before them. Porter J.
White, Frederick Hallen, Mark Sullivan, Otis
Shattuck and Charles J. Ross are among the
many who entered the profession when very
Then there are others who have left trades
and professions to enter the theatrical arena.
Taking a few names from the list of prominent
310 Driftwood of the Stage.
managers it will be noticed that A. M. Palmer
was a librarian at New York; G. E. Lothrop,
a physician at Boston; William Harris, cigar-
maker, St. Louis; Edward Harrigan, ship
caulker, New York; E. D. Stair, newspaper
publisher, Howell, Mich.; George H. Nicolai,
bookkeeper, Milwaukee, Wis. Daniel Frohman
was an errand boy in the office of the New
York Tribune, and Oscar Hammerstein was in
the tobacco business before he took upon him-
self the task of erecting and managing theaters.
Richard Hyde, of Hyde and Behman, was a
hat maker, and his partner, Louis C. Behman,
was a clerk.
John W. Vogel was a druggist at Chillicothe,
Ohio, before he became identified with the
minstrel branch of the profession, and Al. G.
Field was a. house painter at Columbus, Ohio.
A. R. Warner was a clerk in a music house at
Detroit Mich., and Charles A. Altman was
employed in a jewelery store at the same city.
William C. Cameron was a furniture dealer at
New York; and William T. Keough, reporter,
Charleston, S. C. Samuel Tuck was a dealer
in chandeliers, and Elmer E. Vance was a
Among the actors we have Frederick Warde,
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 311
who was articled to a law firm at London, and
Frank C. Bangs took to the stage because he
could not make money at the law. Otis Skin-
ner nailed up boxes in a dry goods house and
edited a small paper at Hartford, Conn. Eu-
gene O. Jepson wrote wrappers for the Hart-
ford Post, and Joseph Wheelock was a sailor.
Eiben Plympton was a machinist when he
lived at Boston, and Henry Lee was a butcher
in his father's shop. Henry E. Dixey was a
dry goods clerk at Boston before he danced
into celebrity as the hind legs of a paper-mache
heifer. Louis Morrison was a photographer,
and Willie Edouin's "Fun in a Photograph
Gallery" was based on Mr. Edouin's experiences
in the same trade. Harry Lacy laced shoes
for his customers in a Detroit shoe shop. Cyril
Searle was a job printer in England and a
Herald compositor at New York. Robert C.
Hilliard was in a broker's office.
Sam Bernard was a decorator and paper-
hanger, Nat M. Wills was a printer, Hal
Stephens a druggist, and George Sidney
worked in a hat factory. George W. Monroe
was a type founder, Harry Linton held a posi-
tion of trust with the Wells-Fargo Express
^12 Driftwood of the Staore.
Company, and Billy B. Van started out to be
a scene painter.
It is said that more printers turn actors than
people of any other trade. Few actors leave
the stage if they gain success on it, although
a few of them go into management, and jour-
nalism lures them once in a while. J. Bernard
Dyllyn was a plumber at San Francisco;
Charles A. Mason, a tinsmith at Indianapolis;
Peter Randall, tailor, Boston; Mark Murphy,
bartender, San Francisco; Joe Flynn, composi-
tor. New York; Frederick Mosely, hotel clerk,
St. Paul, Minn. ; Joseph J. Dowling, en-
gineer, Pittsburg; Harry Mills, jeweler, New
York; J. Royer West, confectioner, Lancaster,
Pa. ; and Harry Blocksom, iceman, Phila-
Sam Morton was a candymaker and so was
Harry Yokes. John G. McDowell was a
cracker baker, and R. J. Jose a blacksmith.
Happy Ward was a tobacco stemmer at Rich-
mond, Va. ; Charles Savan, paperhanger, Grand
Forks, N. D. ; William E. Hines, pressfeeder.
New York ; Bobby Gaylor, butcher, New York ;
and Charles W. Young, cabinetmaker, Beaver
* * * sK jj< :ic
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 313
On June 8, 1882, the people of the State of
New York, represented in Senate and As-
sembly, passed an act incorporating the Actors'
Fund of America. The articles of incorpora-
tion contained the names of 184 of the most
prominent members of the different branches
of the profession, headed by the following, who
became the first Board of Trustees :
Lester Wallack, Albert M. Palmer, Edwin
Booth, Edward Harrigan, Henry E. Abbey,
William Birch, William Henderson, Joseph
Jefferson, John F. Poole, Marshall H. Mallory,
Phineas T. Barnum, Lawrence Barrett, Wil-
liam J. Florence, Joseph K. Emmett, Henry C.
Miner, John H. Haverly, and William E.
The object of the new organization was to
advance, promote, foster and benefit the con-
dition and welfare of persons belonging to the
theatrical profession and their families, and the
destitute sick belonging to the theatrical pro-
fession. The term theatrical profession includ-
ing all persons pursuing the profession of and
earning their livelihood solely by acting, sing-
ing, dancing, managing or performig in
theaters, opera houses, music halls or circuses,
as well as any and all persons wholly dependent
314 Driftwood of the Stage.
upon the business of amusements for their live-
lihood. At the same time, the American Dra-
matic Fund Association was authorized and
empowered to unite with and merge its funds
and moneys with the funds and moneys of the
The dues were placed at two dollars per year,
but on payment of fifty dollars a life member-
ship could be secured. The revenues are mostly
obtained, however, from the elaborate benefit
performances given throughout the country by
the theatrical profession in general, some of
these performances being the grandest ever
known in the history of the stage. There have
also been a large number of bequests and dona-
tions to the Fund.
One of the first benefits given for the Actors'
Fund took place at Haverly's Theater, New
York, March 13, 1882, M. B. Curtis and his
company appearing in "Sam'l of Posen." On
April 3 of the same year, matinee benefit per-
formances were given in fourteen theaters at
New York, also the Brooklyn theaters. A
number of donations were announced from the
dififerent stages on that day, James Gordon
Bennett giving $10,000. The benefit at the
Boston Theater, April 12, 1883, was one of the
Driftzvood of the Stage. 315
grandest affairs that ever took place at that city,
as well as one of the most successful financially.
A triple performance for the benefit of the
Actors' Fund took place February 4, 1886, un-
der the management of Augustin Daly, Lester
Wallack and A. M. Palmer. At two o'clock
on that day J\lr. Wallack's company appeared
at Wallack's Theater in the second act of "The
Rivals;" at three o'clock they appeared at
Daly's Theater in the fourth act, and at four
o'clock they appeared at the Madison Square
Theater in the last act. Mr. Palmer's company
appeared at two o'clock at the Madison Square
Theater in the first act of "Engaged;" at three
o'clock they appeared at Wallack's Theater in
the second act, and at four o'clock at Daly's
Theater in the last act of the same play. Mr.
Daly's company appeared at Daly's Theater at
two o'clock in the first act of "Love on
Crutches;" at three o'clock they appeared at
Wallack's Theater in the second act, and at four
o'clock they appeared at Wallack's Theater in
the last act of the same play. Mr. Wallack
addressed the audience at Daly's, Mr. Palmer
at Wallack's, and Mr. Daly at the Madison
When the Actors' Fund fair was held at the
3i6 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
Madison Square Garden, New York, in May,
1892, the younger members of the profession
had a chance to show of what service they could
be when the opportunity presented itself. A
noble band of ladies and gentlemen of the stage
volunteered their services to the cause and took
the heavy burdens from the shoulders of the
older ones. They took charge of the booths
where goods were displayed, and engaged in
friendly rivalry over the disposal of their
wares, and some eagerly sought votes for
friends whom they wished to see the possessors
of the valuable prizes. To prove that their work
was well done, it need only be said that it was
the most successful affair of the kind ever held
in this country, financially and otherwise.
It is without doubt the greatest organized
charity in the entire world. It is harmony that
keeps it so. The names of the most famous
stars and the theatrical mechanic are inscribed
on the same page. The manager who donates
his theater, or the actors who cheerfully journey
from other cities to take part in benefit perform-
ances, do not seem to think they are doing a
bit more for the good work than the man who
has charge of the lights or the girl who is sell-
ing programs and flowers in the lobby.
Driftwood of the Stage. 317
The Actors' Fund Home at West New
Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y., opened its doors
on May 8, 1902, with the Rev. George C.
Houghton and Joseph Jefferson dehvering the
opening prayer and address. A home with
every modern improvement, with over fifty
rooms, lighted by electricity, plenty of light,
air and heat. It has a library, billiard room,
pool room, in fact everything requisite to make
our old friends comfortable. The actors, the
managers and the public contributed over
$100,000 to erect and furnish this home, and
the Actors' Fund of America owns the home
free of any incumbrance.
The ceremonies commenced at three o'clock
in the afternoon. Daniel Frohman, First Vice-
President of the Actors' Fund, presiding. Mr.
Frohman read a telegram sent by Nat C.
Goodwin, Maxine Elliott, James O^Neill and
others from San Francisco, tendering their
greetings and congratulations and saying that
they were giving a benefit that day for the
Actors' Fund Home, and would send a check
for $2,000. He then introduced Mr. Jefferson,
who said, in part:
"First, I will speak of the importance of this
home — the great importance of it. The theatri-
3i8 Driftwood of the Stage.
cal profession is increasing year after year, and
it stands to reason that in years to come there
will be many of our profession who, through
sickness, distress, old age and many of
those unfortunate incidents that are apt
to follow human existence, will need a
sanctuary and a shelter for their old age.
And let me sav that those who become inmates
of this home can enter it without that mortifica-
tion which usually accompanies the reception of
charity for the reason that they have, them-
selves, directly and indirectly, contributed to
the fund that has raised this beautiful home.
So that when they accept it they will be in the
seat of their inheritance.
"Mr. Al. Hayman was the first contributor
by the munificent sum of $10,000 for this home.
He has lived with it a year, and he has nobly
done his work. The comfort, even the elegance
— and I say even the elegance advisedly — of the
home as it stands now are so manifest that it
will be a great comfort to those who enter it
as a sanctuary for help during their declining
years. Mr. Hayman gave this sum with the
understanding that a large sum should be con-
tributed by the theatrical profession. I believe
you know with what promptness they came for-
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 319
ward and poured in their donations to the Fund.
Subscriptions ranging from $25 to $1,000
poured in until the sum required was raised
within a few days."
Mr. Hayman being called upon spoke as fol-
"There stands your home. I am only sorry
that one who was very dear to you, who
labored daily to bring about this home, is not
here to see it. I refer to the late president of
the Actors' Fund, Louis Aldrich. If the little
I have done to help erect this home meets with
your approbation. I shall feel more than re-
warded. I hope in later days, when I look back
at the good the home will do, and the many that
it may shelter, that I can look back with the
same degree of satisfaction at the manner in
which you will sustain this home. We have
got the home. It is beautiful, as you will see
when you go through it, and it is up to you,
ladies and gentlemen, brothers of the pro-
fession, to keep in ease and comfort, for the
remainder of their lives, the many brothers and
sisters that have worked with you."
320 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
BURNING OF THE BROOKLYN
The presence of mind of the actor in time
of the gravest clanger has been to the advantage
of theatergoers on more than one occasion, and
it is known where actors have held an audience
in laughter while the house force were fighting
a fire on the stage, and had time to place a man
at each exit to handle the audience in case of
The notion that real heroism is inseparable
from war is passing, and there is less inclination
today to deify a man merely because he has had
a hand in a few skirmishes or even real battles
than there is to consider those qualifications of
unselfishness which find manifestations in other
capacities than shooting, killing and maiming.
It is, of course, true that a war affords oppor-
tunities for what we are accustomed to class as
heroism in superlative degree, but it is not the
only thing that affords opportunities.
There has been no more adequate demonstra-
tion of this than was given by Eddie Foy, the
Driftwood of the Stage. 321
comedian of the * 'Bluebeard" company, that
was playing in the Iroquois Theater, Chicago,
when that theater was destroyed by fire on the
afternoon of December 30, 1903, and 578 per-
sons lost their lives. He was the one cool in-
dividual in the whole theater. When the flames
from the burning scenery were roaring over his
head, when he was perhaps the only one who
was fully aware that the fire could not be con-
trolled, he stood at the front of the stage and
sought to calm the people.
Between exclamations he bent over toward
Herbert Dillea, the orchestra leader,
"Start an overture!" he commanded. ''Start
anything. For God's sake, play, play, play,
and keep on playing."
The brave words were as bravely answered.
Dillea raised his wand, and the musicians be-
gan to play. Better than any one in the theater
they knew their peril. They could look slant-
ingly up and see that the 300 sets of scenery
all were ablaze. Their faces were white, their
hands trembled, but they played, and played.
Dillea — his ranks already thinning out in the
orchestra pit — struck up the "Sleeping Beauty
and the Beast" overture. Of the thirty odd
musicians in the pit not over half a dozen re-
322 Driftwood of the Stage,
mained to follow Dillea and his baton. But the
little fellow, ashen pale, his eyes glued on the
raging mass of flame above, never whimpered.
He kept right on, and only left his post when
the flames drove him away from his leader's
Perhaps these two brave fellows did not ac-
complish much. The results of their efforts can
never be reduced to numbers. And yet the
words, the music, and the example may have
had an effect which saved many.
During a performance of "If I Were King,'*
which was presented by Edward H. Sothern at
the Providence Opera House in April, 1902,
burning stage grass for a few moments threat-
ened to take on a realism that was to result in
an interesting panic. The lighting for the gar-
den scenes in the second and third acts was done
from overhead, instead of from the wings. A
broken arc light carbon, falling into the dyed
excelsior that serves for grass, started a furious
blaze. The women in the audience began to get
excited as the fire ran over the stage, but Mr.
Sothern kept on saying his lines, and methodi-
cally stamping out the flames until all were
extinguished. His presence of mind brought
Driftwood of the Stage. 323
him rounds of applause from the auditors, and
the play went on.
Other incidents have occurred lo show that
actors can personate in dead earnest the self-
possessed, dashing heroes whom they portray
so perfectly in the mimic world. Some years
ago Lester Wallack appeared in a performance
of a play called "Home," at his own theater in
New York. Shortly after he appeared in the
character of Colonel White, only to be ordered
from the house of his stage father, a person
in the audience called out to him in alarm,
"Look behind you !" As he turned he saw that
the candle on the mantelpiece had burned down
to the socket, and the paper wrapped around it
had caught fire to the imminent danger of a
curtain which in another second would be
ablaze. Mr. Wallack coolly drew the candle-
stick away from the curtain, holding it while
the hot wax fell fast upon his hand and re-
peated his lines as if nothing had happened.
Had he shown the slightest nervousness it
might have caused one of those panics in which
the spectators Ipse their wits and stampede like
a lot of sheep. Soon the house, assured by his
manner and the extinguishing of the flames,
burst into a round of applause. Mr. Wallack
324 Driftwood of the Stage.
repeated the lines, "Well, the Governor has
turned me out of the house" — and added im-
promptu — "but I have the satisfaction of know-
ing that I have been instrumental in saving
the place from destruction by fire."
During the production of "Faust" at the
Trimble Opera House, Albany, N. Y., in Oc-
tober, 1 87 1, there was a narrow escape from a
serious accident. It was in the temptation scene
where Lottie Angus appeared as a beautiful
witch, arrayed in a costume of the lightest kind
of gauze. This scene was attended with a dis-
play of fireworks, and the dress of the fair
tempter caught fire. For a moment the aud-
ience was treated to a sensation not on the bills,
but Harold Fosberg, the Faust of the evening,
was equal to the situation. Seeing the danger,
with one sweep of his arm he tore the burning
drapery from the frightened lady, and she
sprang behind the scenes unharmed. The next
night she was not so fortunate. Contrary to
orders, fireworks were again used. Her drap-
ery caught fire, and this time she was severely
Blanche Walsh had a narrow escape from
serious injury during the presentation of Tol-
stoi's "Resurrection" at the Victoria Theater,
Driftzvood of the Stage. 325
New York, in April, 1903. A lamp used in
one of the scenes set fire to Miss Walsh's hair
and she rushed from the stage. Joseph
Haworth, her leading man, caught her in the
wings and extinguished the flames before the
lady had been seriously burned. Then she went
on with the scene as if it were a part of the'
An unknown number of people owe their
lives to John Philip Sousa. On one occasion
he was playing to an audience of 12,000 people
at St. Louis, when the electric lights in the hall
suddenly went out. Some one shouted ''Fire !"
and an ominous rustle made Itself heard
through the gloom. Rap, rap, went Sousa's
baton, and without an instant's hesitation the
band burst forth into "Oh, Dear, What Can the
Matter Be?" The uneasy rustle turned to a
ripple of laughter, and when this air was rapidly
followed by "Wait Till the Clouds Roll By" a
roar of merriment showed that the situation
The cool head of Florence Reed, when she
was leading lady of the Fifth Avenue Theater
Stock Company at New York, once saved Mr.
Proctor's playhouse from possible destruction.
Just before the end of the farce, "Who is
326 Driftwood of the Stage.
Brown?" a grate fire used in the scene got out
of order and blazed up dangerously near a
lambrequin used for draping the mantelpiece.
Miss Reed noticed it at her entrance, and while
delivering her lines threw a quick aside to some
one in the wings, giving the alarm without be-
traying her agitation to the audience. Paul
McAllister, who was also on the stage at the
time, walked over and tried to stamp out the
flames, repeating his lines at the same time.
Frederick Bond, as the butler, walked in at this
juncture with a pail of water, and pretending to
put coal on the fire, made a quick finish to what
might have developed into a serious catastrophe.
None of the players lost either their heads or
their lines, and the play went on smoothly to
the end as though nothing had happened.
Great care is now exercised for the protec-
tion of the theatergoers in case of fire, and many
theaters have an organized force among their
employes for such emergencies. Their plan of
defense is a simple one, and is started by num-
bering sixteen employes in each theater. The
first-floor ticket taker is No. i, the chief usher
is No. 2, the aisle ushers follow as Nos. 3, 4,
5 and 6, the orchestra leader is No. 7, and then
come nine of the men on the stage and in the
Driftzvood of the Stage. 327
flies to complete the sixteen. At the first sign
of fire or smoke in any part of the theater Nos.
I, 7, 8 and 12 hear a buzzer conveniently placed
near them, to be sounded only in case of fire,
and not loud enough to alarm the audience.
At the first sound No. i quietly tells the chief
usher and his assistants to look sharp, talk
quietly but firmly to folks who may become
excited, assure them there is no immediate
danger, and aid them in leaving their seats, if
they insist on doing so, in orderly fashion. The
orchestra leader immediately strikes up a pa-
triotic air. If the fire is on the stage, the stage
manager orders the asbestos curtain rung down,
and steps to the footHghts to assure the aud-
ience that there should be no excitement as there
is no immediate danger. Other stage employes
move quickly and quietly to the fire hydrants,
two men to each, and while one attaches the
hose the other carries the nozzle as near to the
place of conflagration as possible. The man at
the hydrant then awaits the word from the
stage manager to turn on the water.
It was on December 5, 1876, that the Brook-
lyn Theater was burned. The number of killed
and missing at this fire was never known.
Those identified numbered 284, among whom
328 Driftwood of the Stage,
were the well-known actors, Claude Burroughs
and H. S. Murdoch. The play of the ''Two
Orphans" was being performed. The full cast
was as follows, and with the exception of Miss
Morant, Miss Vernon and one or two of the
minor characters, all the members were in the
theater at the time of the fire :
Chevalier de Vaudry Charles R. Thorne, Jr.
Count de Linieres H. F. Daly
Picard Claude Burroughs
Jacques Frochard J. B. Studley
Pierre Frochard H. S. Murdoch
Marquis de Presles J. G. Peakes
Doctor of the Hospital H. B. Phillips
La Fleur H. W. Montgomery
Officer of the Guard John Mathews
Martin L. Thompson
De Mailly M. J. Clements
D'Estres George Dalton
Footman E. Lamb
Antoine R. Struthers
Henriette j The \ ^^^e Claxton
Louise ( Two Orphans \ Maude Harrison
La Frochard Mrs. Farren
Countess de Linieres Fanny Morant
Sister Genevieve Ida Vernon
Marianna Kate Girard
Julie Ethel Allen
Cora Miss L. Cleves
Sister Therese Mrs. L. E. Seymour
Miss Claxton (Louise) was lying on the
George M. Cohan.
• * #• •
• •/ • •
• • • «
Driftwood of the Stage. 329
straw pallet in the last act, and Mr. Murdoch
(Pierre) was delivering his lines when the
two heard a whisper of ''Fire!" from behind
the scenes, and looking up saw flames issuing
from the flres. Mr. Murdoch stopped, but Miss
Claxton said in an undertone: "Go on, they
will put it out; there will be a panic; go on!"
He resumed, Mrs. Farren (Mother Frochard)
entering in the meantime. The stage hands
were all the while trying to stop the flames un-
noticed by the house, and Miss Claxton de-
livered her little speech to Jacques, "I forbid
you to touch me!" which was greeted with ap-
plause. Meanwhile the audience had begun to
suspect something, and with Miss Claxton's
words, '1 will beg no more," the actors were
forced to move by reason of falling embers,
and the audience rose to their feet. When the
blazing fragments began falling thick and fast
the audience made a rush for the doors, and the
struggle for life began. The ushers tried to
enforce order in the maddened crowd, without
avail. Those who were not trampled to death
were suffocated by smoke.
The actors held their ground as long as pos-
sible, but had to look out for themselves. Claude
Burroughs (Picard) escaped from his dressing
330 Driftwood of the Stage.
room only to meet death, and Mr. Murdoch was
never seen again. The four people on the stage
displayed much coolness and bravery under the
trying circumstances and in urging the audience
to depart leisurely, or there would have been a
much worse stampede — ^possibly a heavier loss
of life. Mr. Studley was the last to leave the
stage. Pointing to his associates, who were
begging the people not to get excited, he spoke
the last words in the history of that theater,
which were: "Keep cool. We are between
you and the flames!"
The occupants of the orchestra chairs and
parquet had but little difficulty in making good
their escape, but at least two-thirds of the aud-
ience were in the dress circle and gallery. The
loweft estimate of the number in the gallery
was that about six hundred people were in that
portion of the house, and from these were most
of the deaths. The exit from the first balcony
was down a single flight of stairs in the rear
of the vestibule. Down these stairs the people
came in scores, leaping and jumping in wild
confusion. The gallery exit was through a
tortuous passage which made escape next to an
impossibility, and was soon choked up with
struggling human beings, who were either
Driftwood of the Stage. 331
trampled to death or suffocated by smoke before
the roof of the theater fell about half an hour
after the flames broke out. It was nearly
morning before the extent of the loss of life
was known, and the morning papers went to
press announcing that only two lives had been
lost. Daylight revealed scores of charred
bodies in the ruins.
The last man within the burning building had
looked around the lower auditorium and saw
no one there, but in the extreme end of the top-
most gallery were imprisoned hundreds of souls
suffocated by the volumes of smoke that poured
down from the burning roof, and who gave
no sign that they were miserably perishing
there. The following morning when the flames
were fully under control and the firemen began
their search among the ruins, the explora-
tion of a dreadful pit just beyond the door lead-
ing into the street discovered a sight that
made strong men pale and faint, and disclosed
a scene which is to be recorded as almost un-
paralleled in history. There, piled one upon
another in every attitude of struggling despair,
was a mass of charred and agonizing figures,
just as they had fallen with the end of the
332 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
gallery above, where they had met altogether
their horrible deaths.
About one hundred of the victims were given
a public burial at Greenwood Cemetery on one
of the stormiest days ever known. The grave
was a circular trench fourteen feet wide and
eight feet deep. The earth from the trenches
was piled up in the center and formed a cone
twenty feet high. The inclemency of the
weather prevented the carrying out of the full
program. As one by one the hearses and
wagons came up and deposited the coffins in a
row, the German singing societies united in
singing Abf s "On Every Height There Lies
When all were placed in the trench the Rev.
Dr. Parker read the burial service and Mayor
Schroeder scattered earth on the coffins. After
the benediction a chorus of sixty singers from
the German societies of Brooklyn sang KuUak^s
"Abendlied," beginning :
"Under the greenwood there is peace."
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 333
IN FOND MEMORY.
Junius Brutus Booth, after his farewell per-
formance at the St. Charles Theater, New Or-
leans, November 19, 1852, took passage for
Cincinnati on a Mississippi steamer. He be-
came very ill when the boat had started up the
river, fever set in, and he died November 30,
1852, far from home and without one of the
dearly loved family near, as he peacefully
passed away. Edwin Forrest was found dead
in his bed by a servant in his palatial residence
at Philadelphia, December 12, 1872. Sur-
rounded by all that wealth and taste could give,
he died alone, deprived in his last moments of
a friend to return the last pressures of his stif-
fening hand. James W. Wallack, Jr., an actor
of exceptional charm and talent, was compelled
to retire from the stage on account of failing
health. He went south for the strength he
never found, and he died in a sleeping car a
short distance from Richmond, Va., on his way
from Aiken, S. C, to New York, May 24, 1873.
George W. Jamieson, a favorite actor of his
334 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
time, was instantly killed by an express train
on the Hudson River Railroad, near Yonkers,
N. Y., on the night of October 3, 1868.
Walter Montgomery, a protege of Charles
Kean and one of the most promising actors the
country had ever seen, was found in a dying
condition by a friend who had rushed into his
room after hearing a pistol shot, in September,
1 87 1. Whether it was murder or suicide has
been a question never settled. He had been
married but four days previous to Winnetta
Montague, an actress of handsome form and
features, who at his funeral wore her bridal
wreath, which she scattered in his grave. This
lady died at New York, May 27, 1877, her
beauty a wreck, her means exhausted, and was
buried by the charity of the profession. Peter
Richings, the venerable actor and manager, died
January 18, 1871, from injuries received from
being thrown out of a wagon.
Walter Prior and H. C. Page, quite prom-
inent in theatrical life, were killed in the
Orange Riot at New York, July 12, 1871. Both
were members of the Ninth Regiment of the
National Guard, and fell in the sharp fighting
that occurred at Eighth Avenue and Twenty-
fifth Street, between this regiment and the mob.
Driftwood of the Stage. 335
They were given a military burial from a church
on the north-east corner of Fourth Avenue and
Twenty-second Street, and laid to rest in
Woodlawn Cemetery, New York.
Edouard Remenyi, the great Hungarian vio-
linist, dropped dead on the stage of the
Orpheum Theater, San Francisco, Cal., on the
afternoon of Sunday, May 15, 1898, while
playing his first vaudeville engagement. He
had played two or three classical pieces and re-
sponded to an encore with ''Old Glory." The
audience of nearly three thousand people were
carried away with enthusiasm, leaving their
seats in their excitement, and the applause was
deafening, Remenyi, in response to this, be-
gan to play Delibe's "Pizzecati." He had com-
pleted but a few bars when he fell forward on
the stage and was picked up dead.
It was at the same city that Henry J. Mon-
tague passed away. He had been acting at the
California Theater in "Diplomacy," and made
a great hit, playing to enormous business. He
was compelled to retire from the cast for a
time on account of illness. As the receipts of
the theater had greatly diminished during his
absence, he determined against the advice of his
physician to play again. The exertion was too
336 Driftwood of the Stage,
much for his enfeebled condition, and he died
suddenly soon after. It had been arranged to
leave Mr. Montague at San Francisco when
the company returned east. A short time be-
fore his death he said to some members of his
company: "Boys, I am not to be left; the
doctor says I can go home with you." A few
days later, he who but a few years before had
come to our country a bright and handsome
youth, and by his charming manners had be-
come an idol to the profession, lay dead in a
lonely room in a hotel, and in a strange city
far from all his relations.
Alexander Herrmann, the magician, who
had appeared in nearly every, city of importance
in the civilized world, died suddenly from heart
failure while traveling in his private car, near
Great Valley, N. Y., December 17, 1896. Pat
Rooney, the famous Irish comedian, died on
a ferry boat while crossing the North River
from Jersey City to New York, March 28,
Mark Smith was on his way from Milan,
Italy, to America, and fell speechless in the
depot at Paris. He was taken to the St. An-
toine Hospital, where he died August 11, 1874.
His remains were brought to this country, and
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 337
the funeral services were held at "The Little
Church Around the Corner" two months later.
Edward Eddy died of apoplexy at the Island
of Jamaica, December 16, 1875. His body
was brought to New York and buried from the
Masonic Temple, January 11, 1876. Augustin
Daly died at Paris, June 7, 1899. I'he re-
mains were brought to New York, for inter-
ment, the funeral services being held in St.
Patrick's Cathedral at that city.
During the run of ''The Black Crook" at
Niblo's Garden, New York, in 1873, appeared
a bright little musician about seven years old
by the name of James G. Speaight. Not much
larger than the violin he carried, dressed in a
bright court suit of blue satin, with powdered
wig, silken hose and buckled shoes, he seemed
the smallest performer who ever stood behind
the footlights. As a musician he certainly was
phenomenal. He not only played solos on his
violin, but conducted the large orchestra, stand-
ing on a pile of music books in the chair of the
leader that he might be seen by the musicians
he led. At the close of the run of "The Black
Crook," December 6, 1873, he was taken to
Boston, where he played in "The Naiad
Queen," and led the orchestra of the Boston
338 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
Theater until the night of January 11, 1874.
The following morning the little fellow was
found dead in bed.
While protecting from insult one of the ladies
of the "Diplomacy" company of which he was
a member, Benjamin Porter was shot and
killed at the railroad station at Marshall, Texas,
by James Currie, a noted Texas desperado, in
1879. Maurice Barrymore was at the same
time severely wounded.
Thomas A. Daly died July 20, 1892, from
the effects of a severe beating given him by a
cowardly set of ruffians armed with stage
braces and clubs, and employed as stage hands
at the Academy of Music, Chicago, then under
the management of Dan Shelby.
P. S. Gilmore, a musician of note and di-
rector of one of the most famous military bands
of the country, conducted his band at the St.
Louis Exposition on the afternoon of Septem-
ber 24, 1892. After the performance he went
to his hotel and two hours later was found dead
in his room. Castell Brydges, one of the best
singers the stage ever knew, was found dead
in his bed at the Sherman House, Mt. Clemens,
Mich. But an hour or two before he had gath-
ered the employes of the hotel in the dining
Driftwood of the Stage. 339
room and sang for them. William Davidge
died on a railway train at Cheyenne, Wyoming,
August 7, 1888, while en route to San Fran-
cisco, with the Madison Square Theater Com-
pany, of which he was a member. His death
was due to heart failure. The body was brought
to Brooklyn, N. Y., for burial.
Actors as a rule love to die in harness. The
great Moliere was playing in his own creation,
'Xe Malade Imaginaire," when he broke a
blood vessel. Gallantly he struggled on to the
falling of the curtain, and then in a dying state
was taken to his home. Charles B. Bishop died
on the stage during a performance of *Xord
Chumley," at the Lyceum Theater, New York.
J. J. Prior, a fine actor of the old school, died
in his dressing room at Toledo, Ohio, and John
Howson, a clever comedian, was all dressed and
ready to step on the stage at Troy, N. Y., De-
cember 16, 1887, when without a moment's
warning he was called by the messenger of
death. At the time he was with Lotta's trav-
eling company. George Jordan died in his
dressing room at London, England, November
15, 1873. He was playing Pygmalion in
"Pygmalion and Galatea." '^
Charles A. McManus was found dead in his
340 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
bed in a hotel at Big Rapids, Mich., on the
morning of December ii, 1888. He was a
member of the company supporting Mile. Rhea,
and had played the previous night. Frank
Clements was instantly killed at Newark, N.
J., May 8, 1886, by being run over by a loco-
motive. He was in the support of Mme. Mod-
jeska at the time. Edwin F. Mayo, while
conversing with some friends at the Chateau
Frontenac, Quebec, February 19, 1900, sud-
denly reeled and fell to the floor. When picked
up he was dead.
On the afternoon of May 10, 1873, a large
audience assembled at Wakefield's Opera
House, St. Louis, to witness a performance of
"Mazeppa," one of the most popular of the
equestrian dramas of that day. Leo Hudson
was the star of the occasion, and introduced her
famous trained horse. Black Bess. Miss Hud-
son was a daring equestrienne, possessing a
strong and sweet voice, an exquisitely modeled
form and a handsome face. Her fine rendition
of the part made her a favorite throughout the
country, and crowded houses greeted her every-
Many will remember the story of the dash-
ing young hero, fair of face and figure, who.
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 341
after conquering all of the. royal gladiators that
dared to cross swords with him, proves equally
adept in love affairs, and becomes known as
"the idol of all the women, and the envy of all
the men." The fair Olinska, a daughter of the
reigning household, and betrothed to another,
being found in his embrace, the populace are
assembled and in the presence of their ruler he
is accused of treason and branded as a spy by
his jealous rivals. The Castellan, who rules
his people with an iron hand, orders him seized
and stripped of his raiment, and, without a
chance to be heard, he is condemned to be tied
on the back of a wild horse and turned loose in
the mountains. The sentence goes into effect
at once. As the Castellan cries out : "Bring
forth the fiery, untamed steed!" the horse is
brought on by several attendants, who, at the
command, "Bind strong, hempen lashings about
the villain's loins," tie the victim to the back
of the infuriated beast. When all is ready the
sentence is concluded with: "Let the beacon
fires be lighted on the mountain tops, and may
his fate strike terror throughout all Poland!"
Amid the shouts of the onlookers and the
burning of red fire the steed starts on a mad
rush up the mountain with its precious burden
342 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
on its back. On this occasion the horse started
up the run as usual. It crossed the first and
second sections in safety, and was fairly started
on the third, when the horse was seen to slip.
It struggled hard but could not regain its feet,
and with a loud crash both horse and rider were
precipitated to the stage. Before the audience
had time to realize what had happened the cur-
tain was rung down, and everybody about the
place rushed to her assistance. She was picked
up and borne bruised and bleeding to her home.
The injuries she received proved serious, and
she died at the same city, June 2, 1873.
Lucille Western died suddenly in her room in
the Pierrepont House, Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan-
uary II, 1877, in the midst of an engagement
she was playing at the Park Theater, under
Colonel Sinn's management. Pneumonia was
the cause of her death. She was playing Nancy
Sykes in "Oliver Twist," and Margaret Rook-
ley in "The Child Stealer," and fulfilled her
engagement up to the Wednesday night of the
week for which she was engaged. She ap-
peared in the former character at the matinee
on that day, against the orders of her physician,
but toward the end of the play she was unable
to speak above a whisper. In the last act, when
Driftzvood of the Stage. 343
Nancy Sykes draws herself across the stage,
covered with blood, after the fierce encounter
with her husband. Bill Sykes, he having dis-
covered that "Yer tried ter give me up ter the
perlice, did yer?" (a piece of stage realism in
which Miss Western excelled), she was phy-
sically incapable of going on, and one of the
stock actresses took her place. She was taken
to the Pierrepont House in a coach, and about
eight o'clock that night passed away.
It was on the night of November 30, 1882,
that Frank Frayne shot and killed Annie Von
Behren on the stage of the Coliseum Theater,
Cincinnati. Frayne was playing in "Si Slo-
cum," a sort of travesty on "Wiliam Tell," and
took the part of Si Slocum and Miss Von
Behren that of Ruth Slocum, his wife. Si, who
had been taken prisoner, was to get his free-
dom if he shot an apple from his wife's head
while standing with his back toward her. He
had performed the feat in the principal cities
of the country, but on this night a catch spring
gave way, and the bullet from his rifle struck
Miss VonBehren in the forehead and she fell
to the floor. Frayne ran to her side and fell
in a faint beside her. She died within half an
344 Driftwood of the Stage.
In 1898 Ethel Marlowe died from heart dis-
ease at the Empire Theater, New York, during
a performance of "The Christian." Her sister,
Virginia Marlowe, in 1896, and her father,
Owen Marlowe, in 1876, also died on the stage
in view of the audience.
To die on the stage while bowing acknowl-
edgement of an encore was the fate of Jennie
Reed, an elocutionist, who was giving readings
at Lansingburg, N. Y., in November, 1902.
She had finished a selection, and in response
to an encore, stood bowing to her audience.
Suddenly she gasped, threw up her hands and
fell face forward on the stage. She did not
regain consciousness, and died, the fall having
fractured her skull.
Consumption had fastened itself on Irma
Golz, an opera singer who was well known in
Austria. Her physician was compelled to ap-
prise her of the fact, and order the cancella-
tion of arrangements for a tour of Europe and
America. At midnight she asked that she be
removed from her bed to an arm chair, and
that she be dressed in the costume of her favor-
ite character in "La Traviata." Having said
farewell to her husband and relatives, the room
was brilliantly illuminated at her request, and
Driftwood of the Stage. 345
her brother played Mendelssohn's "Fruehlings-
lied" on the piano. The dying woman followed
the music with her voice until with the words
"earth to earth," she fell forward to the floor,
A sad ending, indeed, was the lot of poor
Polly McDonald. Her clothes caught fire and
she was burned to death at the City Hotel,
Providence, R. I., in 189 1.
346 Driftwood of the Stage.
IN POSITIONS OF HONOR AND
Actors very often disappear from the public
view, and it is wondered what becomes of them.
Were they dead, it would be given to the world
by the newspapers. But where are they? In
some cases the favorites of bygone days are
pushed aside and younger ones have taken their
places. What pleased in their day is not wanted
now. Some tire of theatrical life and seek other
occupations. Not many leave it with a com-
petency. Some retire to the farm to spend
their days in peace and quiet. Others take up
a mercantile life. We find them in all kinds of
business and in different localities.
It very often occurs that those in the pro-
fession are called to positions of honor and
trust by the people. They seem to be especially
fitted to fill positions in the public service. The
discipline to which they have been subjected
in the theater, and the knowledge that success
can only be attained by close attention to the
needs of the people, are of great help to them.
Driftwood of the Stage. 347
Furthermore, there has never been a case where
one of them ever violated the confidence and
trust reposed in him. Of course, it would be
impossible to here attempt to name all those
who have been thus honored, but some of those
prominent in the amusement world may prove
Nathaniel P. Banks was an actor, and played
Claude Melnotte to the Pauline of Charlotte
Cushman in "The Lady of Lyons." He be-
came a major-general of volunteers and one of
the most conspicuous figures in the civil war.
He was governor of Massachusetts for two
terms, and also served many years in the House
of Representatives, and as speaker of that body.
Daniel McAuley, who rose to the position of
major-general in the civil war, and who was
mayor of Indianapolis for three or four terms,
was an actor.
H. A. W. Tabor was in theatrical life many
years before he became governor of Colorado.
He also served in the United States Senate
from that state, and filled the position with
marked ability and dignity. Heber Wells, who
became governor of Utah, was an amateur
actor of much talent. When James H. Stod-
dart went to Salt Lake City to put on "Saints
348 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
and Sinners" for a week's run, under the aus-
pices of an amateur association, Mr. Wells
played the part of Ralph Kingsley in a manner
that would have been creditable to any profes-
sional actor. George W. Peck, who was re-
sponsible for "Peck's Bad Boy," became mayor
of Milwaukee, and later governor of Wiscon-
Robert Taylor was an amateur violinist of
ability as well as a leading lawyer when he
accepted the Democratic nomination for gover-
nor of Tennessee. His own brother was his
opponent in the race, having received the Re-
publican nomination. When "Governor Bob,"
as the people loved to call him, went on his
campaign he took his instrument along and in-
terspersed his speeches with sweet music, and
fiddled himself not only into the hearts of the
people, but into the governorship of the state.
C. G. Conn was a professional musician in his
youth, being recognized as a player of merit on
the cornet. Through an accident a serious in-
jury occurred to his lip, and he was forced to
give up this instrument. He did not become
discouraged, however, but turned his thorough
knowledge of brass instruments into good use
and started a small factory for their manu-
Driftwood of the Sta^^e. 349
facture. This factory, which was located at
Elkhart, Ind., became one of the largest in the
world. Mr. Conn was elected mayor of his
city, and also to a seat in the state leo^islature.
He afterwards became a member of con,s^ress
from his district.
Charles H. Crisp was an actor before he be-
came successively judge, member of congress,
and speaker of the house. Julius Cahn left the
stage for a seat in congress from California.
Henry C. Miner, the manager of many thea-
ters, was sent to congress from his district in
New York, and James J. Butler, manager of
the Standard Theater, St. Louis, was elected to
congress from that district. Timothy D. Sulli-
van for many years represented his district in
the state assembly of New York, and later was
given a seat in congress by his constituents.
Dan Rice once had congressional aspirations,
and put up a strong campaign, but was defeated.
Will E. English served a term in congress from
his district in Indianapolis.
John B. Rice retired from the stage and
became mayor of Chicago, a position he held
for many years, and also served as a member of
congress. He was one of the pioneers of the
theater in the west, and all the famous actors
3 so Driftwood of the Sta^e.
of by-gone days appeared under his manage-
ment. Charles Glidden, a once popular ban-
joist, became mayor of Astoria, Oregon.
Thomas M. Patterson, a senator from Colo-
rado, at one time was a circus manager, being
associated with two other young men from his
home city, Crawfordsville, Ind. John T. Ford
was elected president of the city council of
Baltimore, Md., and by force of circumstances
was acting mayor of the city for two years, and
filled the office with marked ability. He was
manager of the theater in which President Lin-
coln met his death. He was arrested at the
time and kept in confinement for a short period.
It was clearly proven that he knew nothing of
the conspiracy and he was discharged and
exonerated from all blame.
James E. Boyd, at one time manager of
Boyd's Opera House, Omaha, Neb., was elected
governor of his state. Robert Taylor Conrad,
w^ho gave to the stage several plays of distinc-
tion, served the city of Philadelphia as mayor.
His first play, ''Conrad, of Naples," was pro-
duced by James E. Murdoch. He wrote "J^^k
Cade" for A. A. Addams, who failed in it. Mr.
Conrad rewrote the play for Edwin Forrest,
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 351
changing the name from "The Noble Yeoman"
(its original title) to ''Jack Cade."
E. B. Sweet landed in Poughkeepsie, N. Y.,
in advance of "Washburn's Last Sensation"
many years ago. He liked the town and the
people. They elected him an alderman, and he
served in that capacity for a long time. Louis
C. Behman was an alderman at Brooklyn, N.
Y. King Cobb, manager of the Grand Opera
House, Evansville, Ind., became chief of police
at that city.
Kyrle Bellew at one time held a commission
in the British navy, being attached to the
cruiser "Conway," and for eight years followed
the sea. Thomas Brougham Baker, actor and
manager, was the adopted son of John
Brougham, He made his first appearance on
the stage in 1847, ^^^ played regularly with
the old stock companies until the outbreak of
the civil war, when he enlisted in the Union
army. He won rapid promotion and before
the close of the war had attained the rank of
colonel. It was almost entirely due to his
personal efforts that the National Cemetery was
established at Washington. When peace was
declared Mr. Baker returned to the stage and
made a number of long tours in America and
352 Driftwood of the Staf^e.
in England with John Brougham, Laura Keene
and other stars. After permanently retiring
from the stage Mr. Baker re-entered the gov-
ernment service as assistant transportation
agent in the quartermaster's department of the
army. He remained in this position until his
A. Oakey Hall, who served as district attor-
ney and also as mayor of New York, astonished
the public shortly after the expiration of his
term of office, by appearing as Wilmot Kinslow,
a lurid character, in a play called "The Cru-
cible," at the Park Theater, Broadway and
Twenty-second Street, at that city. Charles H.
Hoyt was elected to a seat in the legislature
from his district in New Hampshire. James
B. Camp filled the office of city treasurer at
Louisville, Ky., and Emil Bourlier for many
years was secretary of the fire department at
the same city. Neil Bryant held a position in
the treasury department at Washington, D. C,
and Bill Nye was postmaster at Laramie, Wyo-
ming. Buffalo Bill was a member of the state
legislature of Nebraska, and also served on the
governor's staff in the same state. It does not
very often occur that a person in amusement
circles becomes the president of a national bank,
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 353
yet P. T. Barnum and Pawnee Bill were both
honored by elections to this position.
John Howard Payne, author of "Brutus'*
and sixty other plays, as well as the celebrated
song, "Home, Sweet Home," and at one time
styled the "American Roscius" in England, re-
tired from theatrical life and was appointed
United States Consul at Tunis, which he held
for some time. Thomas Nast, the artist and
lecturer, and who should be justly accredited to
the amusement world, was appointed United
States Consul at Guayaquil, Ecuador. Both of
these gentlemen died at their posts. Charles
Pope, the actor-manager, was for a long time
United States Consul at Toronto, Canada.
John A. Lane, an actor who was long in the
support of Booth, Barrett, and Modjeska, re-
tired from the stage to accept a position of re-
sponsibility and trust in the Philadelphia post-
office. Bingley Pales, an actor of great promise,
became assistant prosecuting attorney of Wayne
County, Mich. James W. Lingard, after re-
tiring from the profession, held a position until
his death in the revenue service at New York.
John J. Enright was appointed postmaster at
Detroit, Mich., during the administration of
354 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
John Whallen was appointed chief of police
at Louisville, Ky., and during his administra-
tion the department was brought up to a high
standard of efficiency. He also served on the
staff of the governor of the state with the rank
of colonel. Walter L. Thompson gave up
theatrical life to become a policeman at New
York, passed through all the grades to the posi-
tion of inspector, and was retired with that
rank after more than forty years' service.
James Canoll left the profession for a place on
the police force in the same city. He rose to
the rank of captain and was in command of
the Ninth precinct at the time of his death.
Henry Doehne gave up a position as musical
director at McVicker's Theater, Chicago, for a
place on the police force of that city, but soon
tired of it; and James Carroll, once a popular
minstrel, became a detective sergeant at Brook-
lyn, N. Y. John McVicker, a former vaude-
ville performer, became a justice of the peace
at Boston, Mass., and "Biff" Hall, a writer on
theatricals, was a police magistrate at Chicago
at the time of his death.
Lon Hayle, a once famous dancer, became an
officer in the Kansas City fire department, and
many modern fire appliances are of his invent-
Driftwood of the Stage. 355
ing. To him belongs much of the credit for
the world wide reputation of that department.
Alexander McBride, a favorite actor, was
elected an alderman at Philadelphia, and con-
tinued in office up to the time of his death.
James McColgan was manager of the Inter-
national Comique, and William J. Gallagher
one of the managers of the Grand Central
Theater, when elected aldermen from their re-
spective wards at the same city. Jeppe Delano
became an alderman at Niles, Mich., and Louis
Epstean represented the second ward in the
common council at Chicago. W. W. Rapley
was for a long time a councilman at Washing-
ton, D. C.
Charles Welch, one of the pioneer vaudeville
managers of the west, was for four years an
alderman at Detroit, Mich., and James H. Kelly
left the sawdust arena for the position of deputy
city clerk at the same city, which he held for
many years. Patrick Conly was an alderman at
St. Paul, Minn., and James Fleming left the
box office to become a harbor master at New
York, where he remained for many years.
Joseph H. Tooker was the mayor's marshal,
school trustee, and managed a New York theater
at the same time. Eugene E. Schmitz, musical
356 Driftwood of the Stage.
director of the Columbia Theater, San Fran-
cisco, Cal., was elected mayor of that city in
1 90 1, and again in 1903, and his administration
was marked by much ability. Many of his
ideas for the beautifying of the city and im-
provements in public service were successfully
Mason Mitchell, a popular leading man, en-
listed in the famous regiment of rough riders
organized at the outbreak of the Spanish-Am-
erican war, and commanded by President
Roosevelt. He was severely wounded at San
Juan in the gallant charge up the hill. Mr.
Mitchell was honored by an appointment as
United States Consul at Zanzibar by his former
commander soon after the close of the war.
Hugh and Henry P. O'Neill were clever gym-
nasts and known in the amusement world as
the Goldie Brothers. When they retired from
the profession they became school teachers, and
both were made principals of public schools at
New York. To them was entrusted the work
of preparing the first ritual in use by the Be-
nevolent and Protective Order of EJks.
J. J. McCloskey, both actor and author, on
his retirement from professional life, accepted
a position in the City Court at New York,
Driftwood of the Stage. 357
which he filled for many years. Hubbard Tay-
lor Smith, the song writer, became vice-consul
general of the United States at Cairo, Egypt.
Mr. Smith is best known as the author of
''Listen to My Tale of Woe," and other com-
positions. One of his songs, ''Sweethearts and
Wives," is sung on every naval vessel through-
out the world at mess on Christmas night.
Duncan B. Harrison, actor and manager,
offered his services to his country during the
Spanish-American war, and rapidly rose to the
rank of lieutenant-colonel of volunteers. Ezra
Kendall was an officeholder at one time. The
following is an entry which stands on the re-
cords of the town of Clean, N. Y., in minutes
of the village trustees' meeting of July 7, 1876:
"Moved and carried that for the sum of one
dollar Mr. E. Fremont Kendall be licensed as
public crier and bell ringer for the village of
358 Driftwood of the Stage.
INCIDENT AND STORY.
Theatrical folks have strange experiences;
some are funny and others are far from it. They
adapt themselves to circumstances, and as a rule
nothing surprises them.
Henry Irving and his company were playing
"Faust" at the time of the great blizzard at
New York in March, 1888. The house where
they played was one of the very few theaters
in the city open that night. Next day Mr.
Irving was accused, in a good-humored way, by
the press of hard-heartedness in compelling the
members of his company to go to the theater
on such a terrible night. They had never seen
a blizzard before, and none of them realized
what it was like. Every single member of the
company, however, turned up, and they played
to one of the most crowded and enthusiastic
audiences they had ever acted to in their lives.
The house was packed from floor to ceiling
with — dead-heads. Every seat in the house had
been sold, but the weather was too bad for
tliose who had paid to care to go out. On the
Driftwood of the Sta^e, 359
other hand, many of the theaters being closed
and the actors not playing, they went to see Mr.
Irving. There was hardly an actor in New
York who was not at the performance, which
was a unique one under the circumstances.
3|C ^ ^ ^ ^ 2^
At McVicker's Theater, Chicago, April 23,
1879, Edwin Booth was playing in ** Richard
the Second," and had reached the soliloquy in
the prison scene of the fifth act, when suddenly
a man in the balcony fired a shot at him with
a pistol. Mr. Booth, looking up, saw a man
leaning over the balcony railing and raising his
pistol for a second shot. The shot was fired
and then Mr. Booth slowly rose, stepped to the
front of the stage and looked inquiringly to-
wards the balcony. He saw the would-be as-
sassin, saw the pistol raised for the third shot,
turned around, and deliberately walked back
out of sight. In the meantime, his assailant
was seized from behind, and was not permitted
to pull the trigger for the third time. Much
coolness was displayed by Mr. Booth, who in
a short time reappeared on the stage and fin-
ished the act. The shots were fired by a stage-
struck lunatic named Mark Gray. He was
promptly arrested and confined. He said he
360 Driftwood of the Stage,
was a clerk, a resident of St. Louis, Mo.,
twenty-three years old, had for three years been
preparing to kill Mr. Booth, and much re-
gretted his failure. For some time he was con-
fined in the lunatic asylum at Elgin, 111., but
ultimately was released through the intercession
of friends. Mr. Booth had one of the bullets
set in a gold cartridge, and kept it as a me-
mento, wearing it attached to his watch chain.
During the tour that Kyrle Bellew and Mrs.
Potter made around the world they appeared
before the smallest audience ever heard of.
Not only was it the smallest, but it was the
most amusing. The place was Hyderabad,
India, and the audience contained two people.
One of these was the mizan, the chief native
prince of India.
The mizan had an English secretary, and this
youth urged the potentate to send a train of
elephants and a retinue of servants to meet the
actors when they arrived at the railway station.
This he did, and they were borne in state to the
royal palace at Hyderabad. There they had
two days of delightful repose until the mizan
should desire their presence to interpret the
great English playwright. They appeared be-
Driftwood of the Stage. 361
fore his lordship, and delivered scenes from
the Shakespearean tragedies and comedies. The
mizan sat high on his throne of brilliant stones,
shaded by a canopy, and every once in a while
Mr. Bellew would say to Mrs. Potter under
his breath, *'What strict attention he does pay.
I wonder if he understands it?" To this Mrs.
Potter would reply: "He has not moved in
twenty minutes." And this was true. It was
not until they were leaving the palace that it
was found out from the English secretary, who
had been the other auditor, that his highness,
the mizan, had slept in supreme comfort during
the entire recital.
An incident that was not soon forgotten
happened at a benefit for the Elks at Denver,
Col. The performance was made up of volun-
teered acts. One of these was the shambles
scene from "Virginius," presented by Frederick
Warde, and another was a negro act by Johnny
Ray, whose turn came just ahead of Mr.
Warde's, which was unfortunate for both of
them. Ray's act was ended when a big pro-
perty bug descended from the flies, hooked it-
self on to his belt at the back — with his assist-
ance, of course — ^and then lifted him kicking
362 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
and gasping, to the tipper regions. As he dis-
appeared the curtain fell and he was to have
been lowered to the stage. The rope, however,
caught in the pulley, and try as hard as they
could, the stage hands failed to release him.
There hung Ray dangling in thin air, with
that leather belt eating its way into his tender
w^aist places. When they found they could not
get him down, up went the curtain and on came
Mr. Warde. He knew Ray was up there. He
could not forget it. Every moment or two he
would look in that direction and slide away
from beneath him. He forgot his lines, he for-
got the business, and when Ray groaned — that
belt hurt him so — he all but bolted from the
stage. Finally, however, he managed to seize
the knife, and, advancing toward Virginia, was
about to inflict the fatal stab when something
gave way. It was that belt. Down came Ray,
lighting on his feet like a cat, squarely between
the Roman father and his child. Mr. Warde
dropped the knife and doubled up, and poor
Virginia went into hysterics as a mighty roar
arose from the crowded house.
^ ^ :(c s|( Ne
Despite all that is occasionally said to the
contrary, there are many hotels in thriving cities
Driftzvood of the Stage. 363
in the New England states that are decidedly
primitive in their accommodations. There are
mornings when water either for the bath or
for laving is not to be obtained because the
pipes are frozen. William H. Crane thought
he reached the limit in one city in New Hamp-
shire. He got to the hotel from the opera
house about half-past eleven, and in getting his
key asked that some ice water be sent him.
*' Can't do it," said the young man, with the
red tie, who stood behind the desk.
"Why not?" asked the actor.
"Well, you see," he replied, "there's a troupe
in town and we are short of pitchers."
A burly, red-faced fellow, who was warming
himself at the stove, was an interested listener
and he burst into a loud and hearty laugh as he
howled : "Be the troupers rushing the growler ?"
There is a favorite story of the theater that
used to be told, and well told, by Augustin
Daly, and concerned a resident of New Jersey
who went to New York to see the sights and
determined to attend the performance of "The
Fortv Thieves." Stepping up to the box office
he laid down a five dollar bill and asked for one
of the best seats. A punched coupon and three
364 Driftwood of the Stage.
dollars were handed him. When he asked what
the ticket cost and was told two dollars, it was
evident he had not calculated higher tlfen half
''Two dollars to see 'The Forty Thieves/
eh?" he repeated.
*'Yes, sir," replied the treasurer.
"Well, keep your durned seat!" exclaimed
the Jerseyman, picking up the three dollars
change. "I don't think I care to see the other
He H: H: H( sK
It is related that Mr. Mansfield once sent for
a well-known actor to consult about undertak-
ing a part in his proposed revival of "J^li^s
Caesar." The actor was one of those that ap-
preciate their own importance.
"Good morning," said Mr. Mansfield, with
unwonted cheeriness, as the gentleman ap-
peared. "You know I am preparing 'Caesar.'
I have a capital part for you; but before we
go into details as to that let me know your
salary." As he spoke he turned to his desk to
adjust some memoranda.
"Four hundred dollars," replied the actor.
Mr. Mansfield continued his work, with his
back turned toward his visitor, but replied
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 365
pleasantly : ''You will please shut the door
when you go out, won't you?"
^ 3|C 3|C 3JC 3|C ^
Away out in Nebraska, one Sunday night, a
dramatic company was sidetracked at a some-
what wild little village, judging from the cow-
boys on horseback who were prancing around
the rough railway station.
Cowboys are a quick-witted lot. They soon
found out that the company carried a band, and
presented a vigorous request for a serenade.
The leader demurred on the ground that the
music might interfere with the services of a
little ("hurch, lighted brilliantly, not far from
the station. One of the cowboys said that when
people out there went to church at night, every
member carried his or her own coal-oil lamp;
and that custom accounted for the very bright
light streaming from the small windows of the
"Stranger," said one of the cowboy gang,
"will y' play after church is out ?"
"Yes," the leader grudgingly replied, "if our
train is still here we'll play when church is
Quick as a flash the cowboys wheeled on
their horses, and at a signal dashed away at
366 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
break-neck speed. Soon a great racket was
heard over the hill, where the church was sit-
uated. Pistols popped as if an old-fashioned
Fourth of July celebration had been let loose.
Then, in a twinkling, the sound of flying hoofs
returned, the cowboys crowded up around the
station platform again, and their leader
"Tune up, and let her go, stranger; church
A story is told of Richard Harding Davis,
who makes no pretense of being a pianist, but
who does play the guitar and sing well. - Hav-
ing composed a musical setting to Kipling's
"Danny Deever" with that instrument, he
picked it out, quite in the secrecy of his home,
on the piano. The accompaniment to his voice
consisted of a few chords, which from frequent
repetitions he fixed in his memory.
One night Mr. Davis was at an evening
party of musical people, many of them cele-
brated composers. As a joke some one asked
him to play one of his own compositions. To
every one's surprise, he consented, and boldly
went to the piano, where he eyed the keys in a
puzzled way. Turning to Paderewski, he said :
Driftwood of the Stage. 367
"I can't find the starting note. I composed
my tune on a Steinway, and this is a Weber.
Where should the note that is under the W on
a Steinway be on a Weber?"
When Ward and Yokes were playing a
western town a few years ago, they noticed
during rehearsal that the cornet player in the
orchestra was very bad; in fact, he was making
notes on his instrument that neither one of
them had ever heard before, or had any idea
could be produced. The comedians stood the
discord for a time, and then realized that they
must ged rid of the offending musician, or the
night performance would certainly be ruined.
When rehearsal was over, Mr. Ward called the
musician aside, and told him that he thought
the music was too difficult for him to read, and
not to come around that night as he would not
be allowed to play. At the night performance
the musician showed up with his instrument,
but was stopped by Mr. Ward, who said:
"Look here, old man, I thought I told you not
to come around here to-night. Now you might
as well go home as we will not let you play."
The musician looked at Mr. Ward for a
minute and then said: "Well, I guess I will
368 Driftwood of the Sta^e.
play to-night or you fellows don't play. I want
you to understand that I am the mayor of this
town, and I won't give you any license."
Joseph Jefferson was playing on one oc-
casion at Minneapolis when a committee waited
on him and asked if he would not consent to
appear at a benefit to be given the next after-
noon in aid of the families of several firemen
who had been killed shortly before while in the
performance of their duties. Mr. Jefferson
consented to appear and deliver a talk on the
The next afternoon found a large gathering
of professionals, including a number of vaude-
ville performers, all feeling honored to par-
ticipate in an affair of that kind, especially as
they were to "play with Jefferson." Many
stood in the entrances as Mr. Jefferson began
his address on the drama, and were deeply in-
terested in what that distinguished player was
saying, when suddenly a frivolous young wo-
man came upon the scene. She was blonde of
tress and wore short pink skirts. The song
and dance artist was indelibly stamped on her.
At the moment Mr. Jefferson, with rare elo-
quence, was referring to the comedies of
Driftwood of the Sta^e. 369
Wycherly and Sheridan and Goldsmith, all
were startled to hear, in a loud whisper from
somewhere back in the wings, a shrill, girlish
voice saying: "Hi, Mame, who's on now?"
The song and dance lady turned her head,
and whispered back : "I dunno. Some old guy
doin' a monologue."
Abbey, Henry K., 118. !!«,
136, 294, 313.
Abbey, Schoetfel, and Grau,
Abbott, Emma, 167.
Ab€rle, Jac, 126, 127, 128.
Aberle, l^ena, 126, 127, 128.
Adams, Edwin, 103, 132, 133
Adams, Eucille, 177.
Adams, J. T., 150.
Adams, Maude, 21.
Adams, Yank, 268.
Addams, A. A., 350.
Aldrich, Eouis, 110.
Aldrich, Thos. Uailey, 79, 319. |
Allen, Ethel, 328. i
Allen, J. H., 285. j
Allen, Johnny, 253, 256. j
Altman, Charles A., 310. |
Ames, Emil, 113. I
Anderson, Mary, 133, 145, 243.
Anglin, Margaret, 121, 122.
Angus, Lottie, 324.
Arbuckle, Maclyn, 222, 223.
Archer, Belle, 173.
Asche, M. G., 49, 52.
Ashton, John E., 112.
Atzerodt, George, 234, 235.
Backus, Charles, 135, 252, 253.
Bailey, James A., 210.
Baker and Earron, 262.
Baker, Thomas Brougham, 351,
Bangs, Erank C, 192, 220, 311.
Banker, Ed, 113.
Banks, Dolly, 174.
Banks, Maj.-Gen. N. E., 299»
Barilli, Ettore, 127.
Barnum, E. T., 108, 150, 270,
299, 313, 353.
Barrett, Lawrence, 76, 77, 105,
117, 118, 133, 140, 187, 215,
216, 301, 313.
Barron, Charles, 122, 135.
Barry, Billy, 112.
Barrymore, Ethel, 130.
Barrymore, Georgia Drew, 131,
Barrymore, Maurice, 131, 338.
Bartlett, Jonas, ^51.
Bass, Alden, 105.
Bateman, H. E., 191.
Behman, Eouis C, 112, 310,
Belgarde, Adele, 180.
Bellew, Kyrle, 351, 360, 361.
Benedict, Alden, 110.
Bennett, James Gordon, 314.
Benson, Jennie, 34, 262.
Bentley, Rev. Walter E., 146.
Bergman, Carl, 195.
Bernard, Caroline Kichings,
Bernard, Sam, 311.
Bernard, W. S., 252, 253.
Bernhardt, Sarah, 139, 169,
Bidwell, David, 304.
Bingham, Amelia, 137, 210.
Birch, William, 135, 252, 253,
Bishop, Charles B., 339.
Bispham, David, 130.
Bispham, William, 79.
Blocksom, Harry, 312.
Blume, John H., 49, 52.
Bellas, Tom, 267.
Kond, Frederick, 327.
Boniface, Stella, 135.
Boos, Addie, 174.
Booth, Agnes, 135, 138.
Booth, Asia (Mrs. J. S. Clarke),
Booth, Edgar, 79.
Booth, Udwin, 69, 70, 76, 77,
78, 79, 104, 107, 114, 116,
117, 133, 140, 187, 188, 216,
227, 231, 236, 270, 313, 359,
Booth, Mrs. Edwin (Mary Dev-
lin), 79, 166.
Booth, Mrs. Edwin (Mary F.
McVicker), 79, 117, 166.
Booth, John Wilkes, 103, 226,
227, 229, 231, 232, 233, 234,
Booth, Joseph, 235.
Booth, Junius Brutus, 103, 226,
Booth, Junius Brutus, Jr., 117,
Bosworth, Harry, 49, 52.
Boucicault, Dion, 135.
Bourlier, Emil, 352.
Bouton, Mabel, 174.
Bowers, Mrs. D. P., 131.
Bowman and Harris, 262.
Bowron, William Lloyd, 48, 50,
Boyd, Belle, 175.
Boyd, James E., 350.
Bradley, Jimmy, 190.
Brady, James W., 53.
Braham, Joe, 190.
Brewer, John H., 53.
Brookes, Mrs. Elizabeth, 250,
Brookes, George, 269.
Brookyn, May, 177.
Brougham, John, 131, 132, 187,
192, 351, 352.
Brower, Frank, 249.
Brown, Walter 261.
Brown, William Hallam, 52,
Bruce, Miriam, 138.
Bryant, Dan, 157, 163, 269.
Bryant, Neil, 352.
Bryant, William Cullen, 107,
Bryant, W. T., 113.
Brydges, Castell, 338.
Bryton, Frederick, 104.
Buchanan, McKean, 186.
Budworth, Jim, 260.
Buffalo Bill, 110, 352.
Bulwer, Mr., 71, 72.
Burdette, Robert J., 148.
Burk, Major John E-, 267.
Burke, Master Joseph, 179.
Burroughs, Claude, 328, 329.
Burton, William E-, 187.
Butler, Etta, 175.
Butler, James J., 349.
Butler, Robert W., 260.
Byron, Oliver Doud, 20.
Cahn, Julius, 349.
Cameron, William C, 310.
Camp, James B., 352.
Campbell, Bartley, 110.
Campbell, John C, 57.
Cannon, Pete, 159.
Canoll, James, 354.
Carleton, Will, 34, 48, 63, 159.
Carncross, J. L., 157.
Carroll, James, 354.
Carter, James, 52.
Carter, Mrs. Leslie, 20.
Carter, William, 52.
Castellan, Mile., 195.
Castleton, Kate, 173.
Cathcart, James F., 293.
Cay van, Georgia, 129.
Chamberlyn, A. H., 108.
Chanfrau, Frank S., 268.
Chappelle, w; J., 105.
Chin Fong, 85.
Christy, ii. P., 154, 260.
Christy, George, 260.
Clark, James, 57.
Clark, Nellie, 262.
Clarke, Annie, 121, 122.
Clarke, Corson W., 71.
Clarke, Creston, 138.
Clarke, John S., 246, 268.
Claxton, Kate, 328, 329.
Clay, Anna, 171.
Clements, Frank, 340.
Clements, M. J., 328.
Cleveland, President, 353.
Cleves, Miss L., 328.
Clifford, Fdwin, 105.
Clifton, Ada, 285.
Cline, Emma, 195.
Cobb, King, 351.
Coghlan, Charles, 135.
Coghlan, Rose, 135, 141.
Cohan, George M., 309.
Coleman, Fdward, 115.
Collins, Charles E., 264.
CoHyer, Sam, 267.
Cone, Spencer, 149.
Conly, Patrick, 355.
Conn, C. G., 348, 349.
Conner, Fdmon S., 73.
Conrad, Kobert Taylor, 360.
Conquest, Ida, 21.
Conway, Mrs. F. B., 180.
Conway and Kerrigan, 263.
Cooke, DeWitt, 262.
Cooke, George Frederick, 104.
Corbett, Sergeant Boston,. 23.3.
Core, Signor Bueno, 264.
Cotton, Ben, 163.
Cotton, Ben., Jr., 113.
Couldock, Charles W., 116.
Courtwright, Billy, 264.
Crabtree, iyOtta (Lotta), 117,
Crampton, Charlotte, 243, 301.
Crane, William H., 16» 139»
Creese, Lizzie, 167.
Crisp, Charles H., 349.
Crosman, Henrietta, 210.
Crossley and Flder, 268.
Currie, James, 338.
Curtis, M. B., 314.
Cushman, Charlotte, 65, 117,
134, 135, 145, 166, 180, 269,
Cushman, Pauline, :i99, 300.
Dalton, George, 328.
Daly, Augustin, 22, 25, 29, 140,
152, 153, 193, 241, 245, 269,
315, 337, 363.
Daly, Charles P., 79.
Daly, Chief Justice, 106.
Daly, H. F., 328.
Daly, Judge Joseph F., 78.
Daly, Thomas A., 338.
Damrosch, Dr. Leopold, 107.
Damrosch, Walter, 130.
Davenport, F. L., 166, 186,
187, 192, 193, 293.
Davenport, Fdgar L., 309.
Davenport, Fanny, 166, 241,
Davey, Thomas W., 18, 105.
Davidge, William, 285, 339.
Davis, Charles Iv., 110.
Davis, Fay, 130.
Davis, Jessie Bartlett, 140, 152.
Davis, Kev. E^dward, 149.
Davis, Kichard Harding, 366.
Dawson, Kev. W. J., 148, 149.
Deemer, Justice, 182.
Delano, Jeppe, 355.
Delehanty and Hengler, 164,
Denvil, Kachael, 171.
DeKeszke, Jean, 216.
DeTry, Mile., 195.
DeVivo, Diego, 115.
Devlin, Mary (Mrs. i^dwin
Booth), 79, 166.
Diamond, Charley, 266.
Dickinson, Anna, 180.
Dickson, Charles, 14.
Dillea, Herbert, 321, 322.
Dixey, Henry E„ 311.
Dodson, J. £;., 138.
Doehne, Henry, 354.
Don, Laura, 294.
Donnelly, Thomas, 53.
Donniker, John B., 113.
Dougherty, Hugh, 52, 157.
Dowling, Joseph J., 312.
Downing, D. L,., 194, 195.
Drew, John, 16, 131, 309.
Drew, Mrs. John, 20, 167, 239.
Dryden, Harry, 113.
Dunbar, E. C, 263.
Dyas, Ada, 135.
l^yllyn, J. Bernard, 140, 312.
Fddy, Fdward. 52, 104, 186,
l^deson, George K., 14, 158.
£:deson, Kobert, 14, 15.
Edouin, Willie, 311.
Fd wards, Henry, 141.
Eldridge, Lillie, 70.
Elliott, Maxine, 19, 152, 317.
Ellsler, John, 105.
Ellsworth, Colonel, 290.
El Nino, Eddie, 264.
Emerick, George H., 110.
Emerson, Billy, 112, 164, 256,
257, 258, 259.
Emmett, Dan, 249, 250.
Emmeit, J. K., 21, 110, 161,
Emmett, William (Billy), 112,
English, Will E., 349.
Enright, John J., 353.
Epstean, Eouis, 355.
Ethel, Agnes, 167, 193.
Evans, Lizzie, 20.
Evans, Thomas, 105.
Eytinge, Harry, 104.
Fairbanks, Avonia, 184.
Fales, Bingley, 353.
Farren, Mrs. 328, 329.
Farrettee, Signorita, 3 95.
Fatma, Sing Hpoo, 176.
Faversham, William, 129.
Fechter, Charles, 34, 105, 106,
131, 186, 187, 188.
Fenton, Mabel, 140, 212.
Field, Al. G., 310.
Fielding, John and Maggie.
Fielding, May, 152.
Fish, Frovost Marshal, 301.
Fisher, Charles, 106, 269.
1^'isk, Colonel James, Jr., 191,
192, 193, 194 195, 196, 197,
Fiske, Mrs. (Minnie Maddern),
Fitch, Clyde, 138.
Flagg, Chaplain, 201,
Fleming, James, 355.
Florence, Mr. and Mrs. W. J.,
Florence, William J., 108, 141,
Flynn, Joe, 312.
Ford, John T., 350.
Forepaugh, Adam, 108.
Forrest, Jidwin, 12, 13, 70, 71.
72, 73, 76. 108, 120, 186,
268, 286, 287, 289, 290, 291,
Forrest, Mrs. Edwin, 170, 291.
Fosberg, Harold. 324.
Foster, Stephen C, 106, 154,
Four Prophets, 267.
Fox, Charles K., 109.
Fox, George U, 70, 109, 188,
Foy, Uddie, 320.
France, Sid C, 257.
Frayne, Frank, 343.
French, Helena (Mrs. W. F.
French, Minnie (Mrs. Charles
E. Evans), 176.
Frohman. Charles, 121, 122.
Frohman, Daniel, 153, 310, 317.
Fulton, Carrie, 174.
Furness, Horace Howard, 79.
Gallagher and Barrett, 140.
Gallagher, William J., 355.
Garwood, Charles A., 106.
Gaylor, Bobby. 312.
Gaynor, Thomas G., 52.
Giesman, Mrs., 48.
Gilbert, John, 105, 131, 135,
Gilbert, Mrs. G. H., 132.
Gilbert, William, 113.
Gilday, Charles, 113.
Gillette, William, 17, 225.
Gilmore, F. S., 338.
Girard, Kate, 328.
Glenn, James, 50, 52.
Ghdden, Charles, 350.
Godwin, Tarke, 79l
Golden, Grace, 173.
Goldie, Claude, 52.
Goodwin, Nat C, 16, 137, 317.
Golz, Irma, 344.
Gough, John B., 151.
Gould, Jay, 192.
Granger, Maude, 135.
Grant, Gen. U. S., 228, 230,
Granville, Gertie, 171.
Gray, Ada, 177.
Gray, Mark, 359.
Green, George J., 52.
Green, George W., 53.
Greene, Kev. Dr., 151.
Griffin, William G., 52.
Grover, Lieonard, 247.
Gurr, xlnrry. 262.
Guy, George, 53, 112.
Hackett, James H., 116, 147.
Hackett, James K., 17, 129.
Hall, A. Oakey, 195, 352.
Hall, Albert, 52, 56.
Hall, William T. ("Bitt"), 110,
139, 140, 354.
Hallam, l^ewis, 179.
Halleil, Frederick, 309.
Hammerstein, Oscar, 310.
Ham-Town Students, 267.
Hanford, Charles, 141.
Hanley, L,awrence, 141.
Hanlon Brothers, 264.
Hardy, Madeline, 174, 303, 304.
Harkins, Daniel H., 109, 214,
Harold, David E;., 231, 232.
Harrigan, Edward, 136, 137,
138, 163, 267, 310, 313.
Harris, Henry U., 309.
Harris, Miss, 228.
Harris, Mrs. William, 173.
Harris, William, 121, 310.
Harrison, Alice, 257, 264.
Harrison, Duncan J5., 357.
Harrison, Maude, 328.
Harrison, W. B., 263.
Hart, Katie, 174.
Hart, Tony, 112, 136, 137, 163,
Harte, Bret, 110.
Haslam, Maud, 177.
Hassett, Kate, 174.
Hastings, Alice, 173.
Haverly, J. H., 112, 313.
Hawk, Harry, 302.
Hawkins, l^ew, 140.
Haworth, Joseph, 138, 242,
Hayes, Catharine, 289.
Hayfe, Lon, 354.
Hayman, AI., 318, 319.
Haynes, Minna Gale, 138.
Henderson, William, 313.
Henglcr, John M., 187.
Henry, Hi, 98.
Henriot, M^le., 169.
Herford, Beatrice, 130,
Heme, James A., 12, 150, 238,
Heron, Bijou, 269.
Heron, Matilda, 132, 269.
Herrmann, Alexander, 236.
Hibbert, Louise, 293.
Hicks, Charles C, 186.
Hill, Jjitta Jidmunds, 174.
Hillard, Robert C, 311.
Hilton, Prof., 264.
Hindle, Annie, 267.
Hines, Wm. E., 312.
Hoey, William F. ("Old
Hoss"), 108, 217.
Hoffman, Frederick, 53.
Hoffman, Gov. John T., 195.
Holland, George, 25, 26, 29,
Holland, Mrs., 31.
Holmes, Billy, 158.
Holtum, Herr, 262.
Home, Kev. John, 148.
Hooley and Campbell, 248, 261.
Houghton, Kev. George C, 32,
Houghton, Rev. Dr. George H.,
23, 27, 32, 33, 78.
Howard, Bronson, 138, 216,
Howard, Carrie, 177.
Howson, John, 339.
Hoyt, Caroline Miskel, 176.
Hoyt, Charles H., 109, 352.
Hoyt, Flora Walsh, 176.
Hudson, Leo, 340.
Hughes, Archie, 52, 223, 224,
Hunter, Grace, 173.
Hyde, Richard, 310.
Irish, Annie, 138.
Irving, Henry, 22, 65, 358.
Irving, Isabel, 21, 22.
Irvini, Will, 113.
Itwin, Flora, 20.
Irwin, May, 20.
Jack, John, 132.
Jack, Sam T., 113.
Jackson, Stonewall, 175.
James, l^ouis, 16, 210, 269.
Jamieson, George W., 71, 106,
Janauschek, Mme., 210, 211.
Jarrett and Palmer, 117, 134,
Jefferson, Joseph, 25, 26, 79,
133, 134, 141, 242, 284, 313,
Jennings, John, 113.
Jepson, fjugene O., 311.
Jerome, Ella, 174.
Johnson, President Andrew,
Johnson, ^^astman, 79.
Johnston, Kobert, 293.
Jones, Kev. C. H., 148.
Jones, George (Count Joannes),
109, 184, 185.
Jordan, George, 339,
Jose, Richard J., 312.
Kean, Charles, 104, 215, 334.
Kean, iidmund, 104, 215, 284.
Keene, l^ura, 132, 168, 230,
Keene, Thomas W., 74.
Kehoe, Sim, 261.
Kelcey, Herbert, 141.
Kellogg, Gertrude, 141.
Kelly and i.eon, 248, 253, 254.
Kelly and Violette, 140.
Kelly, J^dwin, 263, 254.
Kelly, Kev. Francis H., 147.
Kelly, James H., 112, 355.
Kelly, J. W., 112, 162.
Kendall, Fzra, 16, 367.
Kent, John T., 49, 52.
Keough, William T., 310.
Kemell, Harry, 112, 217, 296.
Kernell, John, 112.
Kidder, Kathryn, 21.
Kimball, Moses, 122.
King Sarbro, 268.
Kiralfy Troupe, 34.
Knight, George S., 103, 135;
Knight, Joseph, 57.
Knowles, f;dwin F., 110, 239.
Koehler, Charles, 141.
Kynock and Smith, 34.
tracy, Harry, 311.
l,amb, F., 328.
Ivancaster, A. F-, 31.
J^ander, Col. Frederick W., 297.
Ivander, Jean Davenport, 29?.
l^andis. Dr., 183.
l^ne, John A., 141, 353.
Ivanghorn, Frank, 49, 53.
Ivangtry, Mrs., 129.
i^wrence. Bishop, 145.
Ivcbrun, Addie, 262.
Lee, Henry, 311.
Iveffingwell, M. W., 302.
l,eggett and Allen, 262.
l^eMoyne, W. J., 301.
Leon, Francis, 254.
Leonard, Joseph, 52.
Leslie, Harry, 268.
Lester and Allen, 265.
Lester, Billy, 112.
J-,evi, Maurice, 16.
Levick, Milnes, 104, 141, 269.
Levy, Jules, 194, 195. 263.
Ircwis, James, 78, 110, 269.
Lewis, Tom, 255.
Lincoln, I'resident, 199, 227,
Lincoln, Mrs., 228.
Lind, Jennie, 123, 166, 288,
Lingard, Alice Dunning, 168.
Lingard, James W., 52, 56,
Lingard, William Horace, 267.
Ling Look, 268.
Linton, Harry, 311.
Little Mac. 113, 257.
Loftus, Cissy, 22.
Lothian, Napier, Jr., 79, 108.
Lothrop, G. JS., 310.
Lotta, 117, 146.
Louise, Mile., 262,
Love, James H., 104.
McAllister, Faul, 326.
McAndrews, J. W., 113, 264,
McAuley, Daniel, 347.
McBride, Alexander, 355.
McCaull, Col. John A., 103.
McClellan, Gen. George U.,
McCloskey, J. J., 356.
McColgan, James, 355.
McCullough, John, 75, 76, 133,
134, 218, 227, 243.
McDonald, George F., 48, 60,
McDonald, James, 262.
McDonald, Folly, 345.
McDonald, Sadie, 176.
McDowell, John G., 312.
Mclntyre and Heath, 255.
McManus, Charles A., 339.
McVicker, John, 354.
McVicker, Mary F. (Mrs. Jtjd-
win Booth), 79, 117, 166.
Macauley, Barney, 20.
MacDonough, Thomas B., 303.
MacKae, Bruce, 130.
Macready, William C, 71, 72,
284, 286, 287, 290, 291.
Maddern, Lizzie, 18.
Maddern, Minnie (Mrs. Fiske),
Maeder, Fred, 303.
Maflin, A. W., 268.
Mainhall, Harry, 105.
Mallory, Marshall H., 313.
Mallory, Kev. Dr., 147.
Mannering, Mary, 129.
Manning, Billy, 113, 256, 257,
Mansfield, Richard, 364.
Mantell, Robert, 17.
Maretzek, Mr., 192.
Marlowe, ^thel, 344.
Marlowe, Julia, 18, 19, 130,
Marlowe, Owen, 344.
Marlowe, Virginia, 344.
Martin, Frank, 105.
Martin, Robert S., 53.
Martinetti, Louis, 113.
Mason, Charles A., 312.
Mason, Henry, 57.
Mather, Margaret, 171, 172,
Mathews, John, 328.
Maxwell, George H., 257.
May, Jessie, 171.
Mayo, Edwin F., 103, 340.
Mayo, iilla, 176,
Mayo, Frank, VI, 21, 103. 140.
192, 237, 238, 268.
Menken, Ada Isaacs, 169. 170.
Mestayer, William A., 108.
Miaco, Tom, 113.
Milbank, George, 108.
Miles, Colonel, 18.
Miles, Young, 263.
Miller, Henry, 138.
Mills, Harry, 312.
Miln, Rev. George C, 146.
Miner, Henry C, 108, 296.
Mitchell. Maggie, 145. 269.
Mitchell. Mason, 356.
Modjeska, Helena, 119, 141.
Moe, Alfred. 264.
Monier, Virginia, 71.
Monroe, George W.. 311.
Montague- West, Alice, 173.
Montague, Henry J., 335. 336.
Montague, Winnet'ta, 334.
Montez, ivola, 171.
Montgomery. H. W., 328.
Montgomery, Walter, 334.
Moore, Carrie, 264.
Moore, Tom, 155.
Mora, Helen, 174.
Moran, Frank, 114, 253.
Morant, Fanny, 285, 328.
Mordaunt, Frank, 141.
Morlacchi. Mile., 111.
Morris. Clara, 137. 138, 148,
Morris, Felix. 110.
Morris, Phyllis, 177.
Morrison, I,ouis, 311.
Morrissey and Fmerson. 34.
Morse, isalmi, 118. 119.
Morton. Sam. 312.
Moseley, Frederick, 312.
Mould, J. Wray, 107.
Mudd, Dr. Samuel A., 231, 234,
Mulligan, John, 52, 56, 57.
Murdoch, Daisy, 177.
Murdoch, H. S., 103, 328, 32»,
Murdoch, James F- 104, 186,
297, 298, 350.
Murphy, Joseph, 157.
Murphy, Mark, 312.
Murray, Flizabeth, 140.
Nast, Thomas, 353.
Neilson, Adelaide, 168.
JNeilson, Alice, 152.
JSIevers, L,ouis, 52,
Newcomb, Bobby, 114, 163,
JNewcomb, Billy, 265. **
Neyer, Ernest, 53.
Nicholai, George H., 310.
Nickle, Frof. Kobert. 262.
JNixon. Samuel S., 148.
JNorcross, Joseph, 53.
Norton, Danger, 113.
Norton, John W., 110.
Norton, Nick, 267.
Nye, Bill, 106. 352.
Oberist, John F., 52.
O'Connor. James Owen. 185.
OXaughlin, Michael, 234, 235.
Olympia yuartet, 267.
O'Neill, Henry P., 53. 356.
O'Neill, Hugh, 52, 356.
O'Neill, James. 13, 118, 317.
Opp, Julie, 130.
U'Keardon, Matt., 160, 263.
Ott, Joseph, 108.
Owens, John E., 103, 268, 302.
Fage, H. C, 196, 334.
Palmer, A. M., 17, 79, 140,
310, 313, 315.
Parker, Rev. Dr., 332.
Farsloe, Charles T., 115.
Pastor, Antonio (Tony), 53,
158, 159, 186, 189, 261, 263.
Pastor, Billy, 158.
Pastor, Fernando (Dody), 53,
Patterson, Thomas M., 350.
Patti, Adelina, 127.
Patti, Carlo, 302.
Paull, William, 108.
Pawnee Bill, 353.
Payne, John Howard, 107, 179,
Payne,^ t,ouis, 234, 235.
Peakes, James G., 328.
Peck, George W., 348.
Pelham, Dick, 250.
Perry, Harry, 285.
Philip, Adolph, 127.
Phillips, H. B., 115, 328.
Phillips, Kev. Forbes, 147.
Pike, Samuel N., 124, 125, 191.
Pitt, Harry M., 79, 115.
Pixley, Annie, 167.
Piatt, E. M., 49, 52.
Plympton, £;ben, 141, 311.
Poe, Edgar Allan, 107.
Pomeroy, t,ouise, 180.
Pope, Charles, 353.
Poole, John F., 53, 313.
Porter, Benjamin, 338.
Porter, Naomi, 262.
Potter, Bishop, 78.
Potter, Mrs., 360, 361.
Power, Wm. H., 111.
Power, Wm. H., Jr., 111.
Pratt, W. W., 149.
Prince iSadi d'Jalma, 34.
Prior, J. J., 339.
Prior, Mrs. J. J., 269.
Prior, Walter, 196, 334.
Putnam, Boyd, 138.
yueen, Frank, 108, 152.
yueen, John, 53.
Kachael, 168, 236, 237.
Rafter, Adele, 152.
Ramza, Frank, 114.
Randall, Peter, 312.
Rapley, W. W., 365.
Rapp, Henry, 52.
Rathbone, Major, 228, 229.
Ravel, Marietta, 264.
Ray, Johnny, 361, 362.
Reed, Charlie, 113.
Reed, Dave, 163.
Reed, Florence, 325.
Reed, Jennie, 344.
Reed, Roland, 108.
Rehan, Ada, 20.
Reignolds, Kate, 122.
Remenyi, Edouard, 115, 335.
Rhea, Mile., 340.
Rice, Billy, 112.
Rice, Dan, 150, 299, 349.
Rice, John, 113.
Rice, John B., 349.
Rice, T. D., 249.
Rich, Isaac B., 121.
Richings, Peter, 303, 'i'^^.
Kiggs, T. Grattan. 48, 60, 62,
Kigl Sisters 34.
Ring, Blanche, 138.
Ritchie, Adele, 138.
Robinson, John, 85.
Robson, Stuart, 12, 110, 185,
Rockafellar, G«orge, 52.
Rogers, Benjamin G., 115.
Rooney, Fat, 112. 15y, 336.
Roosevelt, President, 356.
Rosa, Patti, 174.
Rosecrans, General, 299.
Roselle, Master Percy, 132.
Ross, Charles J., 140, 212, 213,
Rousseau, General, 298.
Russell, l^illian, 152.
Russell, Sol Smith, 12, 103,
244, 245, 246.
Ryan, Sam J., 256.
Ryman, Add, 189, 1»0.
Salsbury, Nate, 296.
Salvini, Alexander, 21.
Sanderson, Sibyl, 169.
Sanford, Jim, 113.
Sargent, H. J., 34.
Savan, Charles, 312.
Scanlan, Sadie, 171.
Scanlan, William J., 108, 160.
Schmitz, Eugene li., 355.
Schoolcraft, J^uke, 302.
Schroeder, Mayor, 332.
Seaman, Julia, 180.
Searle, Cyril, 311.
Searle, Louise, 177.
Seward, Secretary, 230.
Seymour, Mrs. t,. E., 328.
Seymour, Nelse, 56, 113, 1«9.
Seymour, William, 122.
Shannon, John, 53.
Sharpe, Louis, 303.
Sharpe, Tom, 254.
Sharpley, Sam, 254.
Shattuck, Charles F., 52.
J>hattuck, Otis, 309.
Shea, Rev. L. W., 148.
Shean, Rev. William B., 150.
Shelby, Dan, 338.
Sheppard, William, 48, 50, 52.
Sheridan and Mack, 266.
Sheridan, General, 304.
Sheridan, William £;., 110, 196.
Sherlock, £;. T., 302.
Shinn, Rev. Dr. George W.,
Scott-Siddons, Mary, 167.
Sidman, Arthur, 109.
Sidney, George, 311.
Sinn, Col. Wuiiam JE., 14, 16,
245, 313, 342.
Sinn, Walter L., 103.
Skinner, Otis, 17, 311.
Slavin, Bob, 113.
Smith and Waldron, 266.
Smith, Dexter, 121.
Smith, Helene, 262.
Smith, Hubbard Taylor, 357.
Smith, Mark, 104, 187, 302,
Smith, William H., 52.
Sothern, Ldward A., 104, 110.
Sothern, lidward M., 17, 130,
Sousa, John Philip, 325.
Spangler, £:dward, 234, 235.
Speaight, James G., 337.
Spears, Robert, 52.
stair, E. D., 310.
Stanwood, Harry, 52.
Stark, James, 186.
Stebbms, Henry G., 107.
Steirly, Kichard, 49, 53.
Stephens, Hal., 311.
Sterger, Kev. A. F., 147, 148.
Stevens, Emma Maddern, 174.
Stevenson, Charles A., 135.
Stewart, Colonel, 229.
Stewart, Grant, 130.
St. Felix, Leonora, 174.
Stoddart, James H., 347.
Stowe, Emily, 171.
Stromberg, John, 109.
Siruthers, K., 328.
Studley, J. B., 328. 330.
Sullivan, Uarry, 186, 284, 285,
286, 292, 293, 294, 295.
Sullivan, Mark, 309.
Sullivan, Timothy D., 349.
Surratt, Mary F., 234, 235.
Sutherland, Kev. James M.
(Eob Hart), 151.
Sweet, F. B., 351.
Sykes, Jerome, 109.
Tabor, H. A. W., 34Y.
Tanner, Cora, 14.
Tayleure, Clifton W., 192.
Taylor, Robert, 348.
Texas, Jack (J, B. Omohundro),
Thoman, JacoD W., 109.
Thomas, Augustus, 138.
Thomas, Theodore, 16.
Thompson, Fanchon, 152.
Thompson, George W., 50, 52,
Thompson, Johnny, 126, 127,
Thompson, Eysander, 116, 328.
Thompson, Walter E., 354.
Thorne, Charles K., Jr., 241,
Tooker, Joseph H., 355.
Tostee, Mile., 193.
Tournour, Millie, 262.
Tuck, Samuel, 310.
Turner, Allie, 263.
Underbill, Kev. Dr. A. F., 138,
Van, Billy B., 312.
Vance, Elmer E., 310.
Vanderfelt, E. H., 141.
Vandenhotf, George, 132.
Vandemark, Henry, 48, 50, 52.
Vanness, John W., 52.
Van Studdiford, Grace, 152.
Varian, JSlina, 167.
Verne, Emma, 170.
Vernon, Ida., 328.
Vincent, Mrs. J. K., 121, 122,
Vincent, Warden, 85.
Vivian, Charles A., 34, 48, 51,
Vogel, John W., 310.
Vokes, Harry, 312, 367.
Vokes, Kosina, 22.
VonBehren, Annie, 343.
VonBoyle, Ackland, 147.
VonKokoy, Irma, 174.
Waldron, Martha, 138.
Wallack, J. W., Jr., 71, 269,
Wallack, Eester, 25, 108, 135,
140, 313, 315, 323.
Walsh, Blanche, 19, 324, 325.
Waltz, Fred, 157.
Wambold, Dave, 113, 158, 252,
Wannemacher, Henry, 111.
Ward, Artemus, 106.
Ward, Happy, 312, 367.
Ward, J. g. A., i06.
Ward, J. VV., 34.
Warde, Frederick, 150, 151,
Warlield, David, 13.
Warner, A. K., 310.
Warren, William, 104, 121,
122, 133, 134.
Watkins, Harry, 115.
Weeks, Charles, 149.
Weiss, Kev. John, 149.
Welch, Charles, 355.
Wells, Heber, 347, 348.
Werner, Mrs., 21.
West, J. Koyer, 312.
West, William H., 112.
Western, Helen, 166.
Western, t,ucille, 166, 269,
Whallen, John, 354.
Wheeler, Eernice, 167.
Wheeler, James, 114.
Wheelock, Joseph, 141, 294,
White, Charles O., 109.
White, Cool, 53.
White, Cotton and Sharpley,
White, Forter J., 309.
Whitlock, Billy, 249, 250.
Wild, John, 111, 267.
Willard, Ji. S., 19.
Williams, Gus, 34, 161.
Williams, Johnny, 267,
Williams, Mortimer, 263.
Williams, Mr. and Mrs. Bar-
Williams, Udell, 110.
Williamson, Mr. and Mrs. J.
Willis, Oscar, 34.
Wills, Nat M., 311.
Wilson, George W., 79, 122.
Wilson, Tommy, 85.
Wilton, £;ilie, 171.
Wilton, John G., 49, 52.
Winner, Septimus, 303.
Wirz, Captain, 235.
Witmark, A. S., 138.
Wolfe, Dorothy, 171.
Wood, Charles Winter, 181.
Wood,' Henry, 260.
VVyndham, Charles, 298.
Yeamans, Mrs. Annie, 138.
Yeamans, Jennie, 70.
Young, Charles W., 312.
Young, Eliza, 177.
Zebold, George, 114.
UNIVERSITY OF r^TT^
This bo JkrDUE t JrT ''''"'* '^"°'^«'-
''^'^ «^ T J
SEP 15 1956
SEP 1 5 19561
THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY